The objective of the paper is determining the effects of reducing the sulfur content in diesel on its properties, specifically lubricity and electrical conductivity, and the optimal injection rates of lubricity and anti-static chemicals when producing maximum 10 ppm sulfur diesel product from 50/50 Arab Light and Khurais Crude Feed. The optimal injection rates should ensure that the 10 ppm sulfur diesel product will achieve the required product specifications in terms of lubricity and electrical conductivity while maintaining an economically sustainable consumption of the injected chemicals. The test run commenced with collecting a 10 ppm diesel reference sample from the refinery diesel rundown before injecting the chemicals. Then, the chemical injection of both lubricity and antistatic improvers was commenced. The injection rates of the lubricity and antistatic improvers were adjusted via the pump stroke once per day. After that, two samples of the diesel product rundown stream had been collected. The daily samples were analyzed for their lubricity and electrical conductivity by performing the test procedures ASTM-6079 and ASTM D-2624 respectively. the test results for the lubricity test run indicates that the ideal injection rate for the lubricity improver chemical is at 70.0 ppm where the lubricity specification of Max. 460 μm is met with optimal consumption of the chemical. On the other hand, electrical conductivity results were always significantly above the 10 ppm sulfur diesel product minimum specification of 50 μS/m regardless of the conductivity improver chemical injection rate. At the lowest turndown of the pump of 0.49 ppm injection rate, the lab results fluctuated between 280 μS/m and 780 μS/m. Although the product conductivity specification had been met in the test trial, the conductivity improver chemical was stronger than required. Therefore, another alternative chemical that is compatible with the equipment of the injection system may be considered.
Weng, Yibin (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Pollution Control, CNPC Research Institute of Safety and Environmental Technology) | Xue, Ming (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Pollution Control, CNPC Research Institute of Safety and Environmental Technology) | Cui, Xiangyu (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Pollution Control, CNPC Research Institute of Safety and Environmental Technology) | Li, Xingchun (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Pollution Control, CNPC Research Institute of Safety and Environmental Technology)
The global warming potential of methane is 72 times that of carbon dioxide over a 20-year period, and the atmospheric residence time is about 1/12 of that of carbon dioxide, which must become a priority for greenhouse gas (GHG) control. Based on literature research and statistical analysis of publicly available data on methane emissions, the regression analysis prediction method was used to analyze the impact mechanism of methane emissions in the oil and gas production on the growth of GHGs emissions at the industry and national level. Also, the contribution of methane emissions to GHG emissions in the oil and gas industry was clarified. Furthermore, the variation trend of methane emissions in the oil and gas industry along with energy structure reformation was analyzed. Finally, the measures for methane emission control in the oil and gas industry were proposed. The results showed that the contribution to national GHGs emissions from energy industry has gradually increased from 73.3% in 1990 to 80.1% in 2014. In the meantime, the proportion of methane emissions from energy industry in national methane emissions has increased as well, rising from 53.0% in 1990 to 83.6% in 2008. The energy industry methane emissions showed a strong positive correlation with national methane emissions, and the annual fitting degree between the theoretical model and the actual data has increased as well. With the national energy structure reformation, the proportion of natural gas consumption in the energy sector has gradually increased while oil consumption has reduced. A comprehensive systematic reduction pathway for methane emission in the oil and gas production should be considered instead of end-to-end emission reduction. For conventional oil and gas production, improving management practices and operational procedures following the upgrade of technologies or equipment should be used to reduce methane emission. For unconventional oil and gas reduction, reduction technologies such as green completion and gas well liquid-unloading technologies are required, which would continue to promote technological innovation and address strictly control on methane emissions.
In this paper, we propose a new control method for the next generation of autopilots. These new systems will need to manage more actuators to control the hydrofoils, which is going to significantly increase the energy requirements. So, this method is aware of the autopilot power consumption. It uses a model predictive controller to manage the actuators (position control - appendage angle control). This controller uses a dynamic model of the actuator, running in real time, to anticipate the future behavior of the system. Once the predictions are made, it determines the future control sequence to apply in order to follow the reference trajectory. To do so, it minimizes a cost function which includes the quadratic error according to the behavior prediction and the associated energy consumption. So, it takes into account two criterions: the precision/rapidity of the system and the energy. With the proposed control method, skippers can weight each criterion in order to focus on one or the other depending on their goals and the boat’s energy balance. We apply this method to one of the autopilot’s subsystems, namely the rudder control. The electric actuator intervening in this control loop and the load representing the force opposed to its motion are modelled to design the control law. The first results of that method are compared with a standard autopilot. We increase by 40% the precision level and we are able to reduce the consumption by at least 20%. This work provides the first necessary components of a future autopilot that will control the whole appendages to a three-dimensional piloting. Moreover, this type of management is a first step towards possible fossil fuel free sailboats.
Both EIA and BP project a growth in global energy demand, offset by a decline in energy intensity as consumer products increase in efficiency. BP projected global energy demand growing by around a third by 2040, marking a significantly slower rate of growth than in the previous 25 years. LNG will increase the global availability of gas, with supply more than doubling due in large part to exports from the US and Qatar—BP projected that those two countries will account for almost half of all global LNG exports by 2040. EIA said that, after LNG export facilities currently under construction are completed by 2022, US LNG export capacity will increase even further, and Asian demand growth will allow US natural gas to remain competitive there in the short term. After 2030, additional suppliers are projected to enter the global LNG market, including Mexico, and this may make additional US export capacity uneconomic. In the short term, liquids will still play a role in the energy mix, but projections on the extent of that role vary from source to source. In its World Energy Outlook 2018, the International Energy Agency (IEA) writes that oil markets are soon to enter a period of renewed uncertainty and volatility, including a possible supply gap in the early 2020s. IEA projects a rise in oil consumption in coming decades due to rising petrochemicals, trucking, and aviation demand, but meeting that growth in the near term will require a doubling of approvals of conventional oil projects from their current levels. Without such an increase, US shale production would have to add more than 10 million B/D between present day and 2025, which the IEA said was “a historically unprecedented feat.”
You have access to this full article to experience the outstanding content available to SPE members and JPT subscribers. To ensure continued access to JPT's content, please Sign In, JOIN SPE, or Subscribe to JPT When worldwide oil and gas consumption reached record levels yet again in 2017, SPE members were there when it counted, helping to generate more light and power for billions of people across the world. The United Nations Human Development Index (HDI), which serves as a proxy for quality of life, shows that populations that consume more fossil fuels are better educated, wealthier, and live longer (Figure 1). The greatest incremental benefit comes to those who are lifted out of poverty by their first access to cheap energy. For more than five generations, the oil and gas industry has helped raise living standards; protected environments by replacing firewood with natural gas and propane; and provided food to hungry people by increasing farming productivity, transportation, refrigeration, and packaging.
ABSTRACT It is always a challenge to select the "right fuel" for offshore facilities because of the unavailability of well-defined criteria. Examples of offshore facilities include central processing plant (CPP), floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) and floating storage and offloading (FSOs). While suggesting the "fuel type", several points were considered with emphasis on the Original Equipment Maker (OEM) requirements, applicable local & international emission regulation and supply reliability. The "Fueling Strategy" study evaluated the pros and cons of single versus multi-fuel policy, identified the applicable fuel grade, and identified fuel storage location requirements with associated capacity. The final recommendations also carefully considered long term environmental impact of the suggested fuel.
In this work we aim to enhance the sour-gas loading in acid-gas removal (AGR) systems, maximizing oil-production rate at the tertiary phase and enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and mitigating vented carbon dioxide (CO2) with minimal modification to the existing systems. We conducted a simulation study on the basis of a real natural-gas liquids (NGLs) plant and Qatari oil wells with a 390-MMscf/D feed of sour gas using HYSYS and ProMax process simulation tools to evaluate the novel configurations compared with a conventional AGR system.
The results show that the acid-gas loading improved from 0.48 to 0.81, and the amine circulation rate decreased by 40%, while maintaining the treated-gas quality specifications (4 ppm H2S, 1 mol% CO2). The required CO2 compression power for CO2-EOR decreased by 15.49%, and the oil production was enhanced by 1,360 B/D. In addition, 13.6 MMscf/D of CO2 is mitigated and used rather than vented.
Temizel, Cenk (Aera Energy) | Irani, Mazda (Ashaw Energy) | Canbaz, Celal Hakan (Schlumberger) | Palabiyik, Yildiray (Istanbul Technical University) | Moreno, Raul (Smart Recovery) | Balikcioglu, Aysegul (USC) | Diaz, Jose M. (VCG O&G Consultants) | Zhang, Guodong (China Petroleum Eng and Construction Corp.) | Wang, Jie (College of Technological Studies) | Alkouh, Ahmad
As major oil and gas companies have been investing in renewable energy, solar energy has been part of the oil and gas industry in the last decade. Originally, solar energy was seen as a competing form of energy source as a threat that may replace or decrease the share of fossil fuels as an alternative energy resource in the world. However, oil and gas industry has adapted to the wind of change and has started investing and utilizing the solar energy significantly. In this perspective, this study investigates and outlines the latest advances, technologies, potential of solar both as an alternative and a complementary source of energy in the Middle East in the current supply and demand dynamics of oil and gas resources.
A comprehensive literature review focusing on the recent developments and findings in the solar technology along with the availability and locations are outlined and discussed under the current dynamics of the oil and gas market and resources. Literature review includes a broad spectrum that spans from technical petroleum literature with very comprehensive research to non-technical but renowned resources including journals and other publications including raw data as well as forecasts and opinions of respected experts. The raw data and expert opinions are organized, summarized and outlined in a temporal way within its category for the respective energy source.
Solar energy is discussed from a perspective of their roles either as a competing or a complementary source to oil and gas. In this sense, this study goes beyond only providing raw data or facts about the energy resources but also a thorough publication that provides the oil and gas industry professional with a clear image of the past, present and the expected near future of the oil and gas industry as it stands with respect to renewable energy resources.
Among the few existing studies that shed light on the current status of the oil and gas industry facing the development of the renewable energy are up-to-date and the existing studies within SPE domain focus on facts only lacking the interrelationship between solar energy and oil and gas such as solar energy used in oil and gas fields as a complementary green energy.
Lichuan, Jin (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China) | Tao, Han (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China) | Qiqing, Han (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China) | Wendong, Wang (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China) | Qingzeng, Kang (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China) | Hujun, Ji (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China) | Xiaoxiong, Zheng (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China) | rui, Chen (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China) | Xiaochun, Meng (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China) | Yongmei, Bian (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China) | xueming, Lai (Hangzhou QIANJING Technology CO., LTD., Hangzhou, China, Dagang Oilfield Company Production Technology Research Institute, Tianjin, China)
There are various types of reservoirs in Dagang oilfield, in which the geological reserves of heavy oil reservoirs account for 43.1% of the total geological reserves developed. In Liuguanzhuang, Kongdian and other heavy oil blocks, the average viscosity of crude oil is 8537 mPa•s. The downstream is difficult and the efficiency of the pumping pump is still low. Therefore, the hollow rod electric heating technology has been applied to the pumping system, which results in a great increase of energy consumption. The average monthly power consumption of a single well is 37,500 kW•h, and the annual power consumption is 358,000 yuan. This brings a great challenge to energy conservation, environmental protection, cost reduction and efficiency increase. Therefore, the electric submersible progressing cavity pump has been tested and applied. Oil recovery technology has achieved remarkable results of energy saving and consumption reducing and prolonging production cycle. The technical problems existing in the application of electric submersible progressing cavity pump have been solved by studying and establishing the calculation model of pipe flow friction and optimizing the matching equipment of the unit. The normal production of high viscosity and high deviation wells has been realized and the conventional pumping units have been replaced. The electric heating process with rod pumps can greatly reduce the energy consumption of the system operation, and provides a new technical way for the large-scale benefit utilization of heavy oil blocks and the matching of technology and technology for oil wells with complex well conditions.
There are many types of reservoirs in Dagang Oilfield. Among them, the geological reserves of heavy oil reservoirs account for 43.1%
Since 2017, the Dagang Oilfield research support and test has applied the electric submersible progressing cavity pump oil production technology. This technology uses low-speed high-torque permanent magnet synchronous submersible motor to drive high-performance screw pump production, which can reduce the monthly power consumption of a single well to 2,520. kW•h, the unit can adapt to the 90° position of the inclined angle of the well, and the viscosity of the well fluid can reach 25400 mPa•s. The adaptability to the high-slope well of the heavy oil is greatly improved. At the same time, the tube flow through the test application process. The frictional resistance calculation model and the optimization of the supporting equipment of the unit have solved the technical problems existing in the application process of the electric submersible progressing cavity pump, and realized the normal production of the high-viscosity oil high-angle well, and replaced the conventional pumping unit with a rod pump. The electric heating process greatly reduces the energy consumption of the system, and the power saving rate reaches 96%. In this type of oil well, 45 wells have been promoted and applied, and good implementation results have been achieved, which is the scale efficiency of the heavy oil block and The technical technology of complex well conditions oil wells provides a new technical approach.
This presentation describes the efforts undertaken by ADNOC Gas Processing's Buhasa site to save electrical energy in the NGL extraction plant by minimizing fuel gas consumption in power generators. This also contributes to a reduction in flue gas emissions. During 2017, ADNOC Gas Processing pursued actions to save electrical energy in air fin coolers by implementing a sequential ON/OFF control logic to achieve a saving of 1,265,600 kWH.