Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. NACE International, The Worldwide Corrosion Authority, serves nearly 33,000 members in 116 countries and is recognized globally as the premier authority for corrosion control solutions.
The considerations and standards guiding pipeline design insures stability and integrity in the industry. The fluid flow equations and formulas presented thus far enable the engineer to initiate the design of a piping or pipeline system, where the pressure drop available governs the selection of pipe size. This is discussed below in the section on velocity considerations for pipelines. Once the inner diameter (ID) of the piping segment has been determined, the pipe wall thickness must be calculated. If there are no codes or standards that specifically apply to the oil and gas production facilities, the design engineer may select one of the industry codes or standards as the basis of design. The design and operation of gathering, transmission, and distribution pipeline systems are usually governed by codes, standards, and regulations. The design engineer must verify whether the particular country in which the project is located has regulations, codes, and standards that apply to facilities and/or pipelines. In the U.S, piping on offshore facilities is mandated by regulation to be done in accordance with ANSI/ASME Standard B31.3. Most onshore facilities are designed in accordance with ANSI/ASME Standard B31.4 or B31.8, depending on whether it is an oil or gas facility. Some companies use the more stringent ANSI/ASME Standard B31.3 for onshore facilities.
Pipeline pigs are devices that are placed inside the pipe and traverse the pipeline. Pigs may be used in hydrostatic testing and pipeline drying, internal cleaning, internal coating, liquid management, batching, and inspection. Figure 1 shows several types of pipeline pigs. Pigs are used during hydrostatic testing operations to allow the pipeline to be filled with water, or other test medium, without entrapping air. The pig is inserted ahead of the fill point, and water is pumped behind the pig to keep the pipe full of water and force air out ahead of the pig.
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. A corrosion control mechanism in which a small charge is used to oppose the electrical current generated by a corrosion cell. The current reduces metal loss at the anode.
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. The ratio of the mass loss of actual corrosion of an anode to the theoretical corrosion mass loss calculated from the quantity of electricity that has passed between the anode and the cathode using Faraday's law (from NACE).
There are several different types of drilling fluids, based on both their composition and use. Selecting the correct type of fluid for the specific conditions is an important part of successful drilling operations. Water-based fluids (WBFs) are the most widely used systems, and are considered less expensive than oil-based fluids (OBFs) or synthetic-based fluids (SBFs). The OBFs and SBFs--also known as invert-emulsion systems--have an oil or synthetic base fluid as the continuous(or external) phase, and brine as the internal phase. Invert-emulsion systems have a higher cost per unit than most water-based fluids, so they often are selected when well conditions call for reliable shale inhibition and/or excellent lubricity.
There are different definitions of what is Well Integrity. The most widely accepted definition is given by NORSOK D-010: "Application of technical, operational and organizational solutions to reduce risk of uncontrolled release of formation fluids throughout the life cycle of a well." Other accepted definition is given by ISO TS 16530-2 "Containment and the prevention of the escape of fluids (i.e. Well Integrity is a multidisciplinary approach. Well lifecycles have three primary areas of focus or stages; design and construction, well operation and intervention, and abandonment.