The Vega subsea field in Norway has been producing successfully using a continuous Mono Ethylene Glycol (MEG) injection, topped up with corrosion inhibition means. A topside reclamation process allows reuse of MEG, however, limits the possibilities to produce saline water. In order to manage wells producing saline formation water and to increase ultimate recovery, a new flow assurance and integrity philosophy without continuous MEG injection is considered. This paper describes the options on hydrate as well as integrity management and the modifications both on the subsea and topside facilities required to enable an operational philosophy change. This change of the operational philosophy appears feasible, using either timely depressurization or Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors (LDHI) as well as a film building corrosion inhibitor in the system.
Over 20 percent of major oil and gas (O&G) incidents reported within the European Union (EU) since 1984 have been associated with corrosion under insulation (CUI) [
Using bayesian networks (BNs) Oceaneering has developed a decision support system for effective CUI risk management. The Bayesian model can be incorporated into existing risk-based assessment (RBA) systems. A key feature of the model is the ability to predict corrosion hotspots while quantifying uncertainties. The model uses probabilities based on objective data as well as subject matter expertise, which makes analytical techniques in business accessible to a wide range of users.
With a case study we illustrate how BNs can be used to assess the risk of a fuel gas line on a live asset in the North sea. The most likely estimated remaining life (ERL) is forecasted in the range of 13 to 24 years, with a worst case of 6.7 years and best case of 40 years. By comparison, the customer CUI tracker reported an ERL of 9.7 years. BNs increase flexibility for scheduling inspection intervals, enabling more targeted inspection planning. This is a significant advancement from current RBA methodologies.
Brines are preferred to solids-laden fluids for completion operations due to their solids-free nature, which helps preserve formation permeability. Salt selection is mostly driven by the density that must be reached to match downhole pressure requirements. When density must be above 14.2 lbm/gal (1.7 s.g.), and crystallization must be prevented, previous options were limited to calcium bromide brines, zinc bromide brines and cesium formate. These brines have severe limitations: zinc brines can be harmful to oilfield personnel and the environment, cesium formate brines are cost-prohibitive and not readily available and calcium brines cannot meet deepwater crystallization requirements. A new brine technology has been developed, that is zinc-free and extends the density of conventional bromide brines beyond their theoretical limits. This new technology addresses the limitations listed above, while providing low True Crystallization Temperature (TCT) and Pressurized Crystallization Temperature (PCT) to perform in deepwater and cold weather applications.
As part of an effort to evaluate existing riser systems, an operator launched an inspection and testing program to investigate risers retrieved following well abandonment after a service life of nearly 10 years in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper describes a novel method of chemical dosage based on time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) that allows a simple, accurate, and efficient quantification of chemicals below parts-per-million ranges, even for double (scale/scale, scale/corrosion) quantification.
A common theme worldwide in the production of gas fields is the eventual requirement to deliquify the wells. Depending on depth and location, many successes and challenges are encountered. This session looks at field cases to document industry best practices, funda.m.entals and applications for gas well deliquification leading to optimal field development. We invite stories covering the widest variety of measures ranging from the most common (automated intermittent production, surface compression and velocity string) and the well specific (foa.m.-assisted lift, plunger lift) to the most advanced (gas lift, downhole pumping). Production wells in gas reservoirs with an active aquifer are vulnerable to liquid loading issues as the gas-water contact rises with depleting reservoir pressure and ultimately reaches the well.
The world’s largest oil producer has awarded $18 billion in engineering, procurement, and construction contracts as part of its Marjan and Berri expansion projects. Ghawar vs. Permian Basin: Is There Even a Comparison? While some try to put the two enormous oil producers toe-to-toe, the best thing to do might be to understand why they are different. Take a quick look at some of the data points shaping upstream headlines and the movement of oil supplies around the world. What Does the New Silk Road Mean For Oil and Gas?
This paper presents a critical review of the recent literature to determine the status of research and development and field application of nanotechnology in the oil field. In this work, the authors demonstrate at a laboratory scale the possibility of using a radio-frequency heating system as a heat exchanger. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is a promising way to remove dispersed oil from produced water. In this study, the authors investigated the optimal operating conditions for MNPs and the mechanisms of MNP/oil attachments and magnetic separation. As practitioners we don’t always convey that the oil and gas industry is at the forefront of many different technologies, but we should, if only because it can be a real selling point to attract young people to our industry.
Identifying the type of corrosion is the first step in the analysis and prevention of corrosion-related failures. Visual inspection of the pit morphology can provide insights into the type of corrosion that is occurring. When panels in an instrument equipment shelter kept tripping and the occasional smell of H2S led to an investigation of the rationale. Although a rare occurrence, this paper presents a strategy for prevention through careful site selection. Though a best practice for sustainable hydraulic fracturing operations, using nonpotable water creates an environment in which microorganisms thrive.
The fourth industrial revolution is taking the oil and gas business by storm. Many companies have increased resources for big-data analytics and machine learning. Though no one sees physical oilfield services as in decline, development in these areas may take a back seat to artificial intelligence. An oil and gas startup has attracted the business with a major operator thanks to its ability to forecast whether production-enhancing chemicals will work as advertised. The evolution of horizontal drilling and multistage completions has changed matrix stimulation from the “more acid, better result” belief to effective lateral distribution and deeper penetration with less acid.