Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Feliz, Justin D. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alshammari, Abdullah F. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Albazzaz, Hussien W. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Hamoud, Zahra A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mutar, Rusul A. (Ministry of Communications and Technology, Iraq) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
The use of conventional chemical additives to control drilling mud specifications causes serious health, safety, and environmental side effects. To mitigate these lasting hazards, an economic multifunctional bioenhancers should be exploited as additives in place of the traditional materials to achieve the desired drilling mud properties. Using a bioenhancer is not only safer for the environment, but it poses no risk to drilling personnel and is more cost-efficient than conventional methods.
In this work, two concentrations of is Palm Tree Leave Powder (PTLP) were added to the base mud and drilling fluid properties were measured. The pH test demonstrated PTLP’s ability to minimize alkalinity. At 1.5% (11 gm) PTLP, the pH was decreased by 21%, while 3% (22 gm) PTLP showed a reduction of 28%. A reduction in seepage loss (cc/30min) of 26% and 32% was also observed, respectively, when comparing it to the reference fluid. Simultaneous improvement of the mud cake was seen over the reference fluid, signifying PTLP could also substitute fluid loss control agents. The plastic viscosity (PV) of the reference fluid was insignificantly affected by the introduction 1.5% (11gm) PTLP. However, when the concentration of PTLP was increased to 3% (22 gm) a tangible increase in PV was seen due to the inefficient grinding of the palm tree leaves (PTL) and irregular dispersal of particle sizes. To mitigate this, a more effective form of grinding for PTL is needed as well as a sieve analysis to ensure equal distribution of particle sizes. The second component of viscosity, yield point (YP), was drastically reduced by 59% at both 1.5% (11 gm) and 3% (22 gm) as compared to the reference fluid. Additionally, initial and final gel strengths were significantly reduced at both concentrations. These results are an indicator that PTLP can be a viable option as a thinning material for water-based mud.
Considering the previously stated results, PTLP can be a feasible replacement or at least supportive material for conventional pH reducers, filtration loss control agents, and viscosity thinners. This biodegradable drilling mud additive shows great potential and is a practical option to replace or at least support toxic chemicals traditionally used such as lignosulphonate, chrome-lignite, and Resinex. This work outlines a practical guide for reducing drilling fluid costs as well as the impact on drilling personnel and the environment.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alashwak, Nawaf A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alshammari, Abdullah F. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkhamis, Mohammed M. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mutar, Rusul A. (Ministry of Communications and Technology)
Drilling wastes generated in large volumes is recognized to have many effects on the environment. Several techniques have been applied by the oil and gas industry to overcome the impacts of drilling waste on the environment, an example of these techniques is using environmental friendly drilling fluid additives.
This work investigates the potential of using White Sunflower Seeds’ Shell Powder (WSSSP) as an environmental friendly drilling fluid additive. This material was prepared in-house. Experimental evaluation has been carried out to investigate the ability of WSSSP to enhance several properties of water-based drilling fluid under two different pH conditions. The WSSSP was first evaluated at 9.3 pH then the pH was increased using sodium hydroxide to 11.5. Several properties of drilling fluid were measured. The measurements included testing the rheological properties using viscometer, measuring the filtration using standard low-pressure low-temperature filter press, the pH using pH tester, and other important properties.
The findings of this work showed that WSSSP in 9.3 pH environment reduced the fluid loss by 18% and 30% when 1% and 2% concentrations of WSSSP were added, respectively. This reduction in fluid loss was along with forming a thin filter cake. The filter cake thickness of the reference fluid was decreased from 3 mm to 2.14 mm and 1.9 mm at 1% and 2% concentrations of WSSSP. Additionally, WSSSP resulted in increasing the plastic viscosity (PV) compared to the reference fluid by 33.33% at 1% and 2% concentrations. While the yield point (YP) was increased by 22.22% and 44.44% when 1% and 2% concentrations of WSSSP were added, respectively. Both the initial and final gel strengths were increased by 27.27%, 44.44 %, 7.14% and 14.28% at 1% and 2% concentrations, respectively. Moreover, the results in 11.5 pH emphasized the efficient performance of WSSSP, and it showed better improvement in the filtration specifications and the rheological properties. In other words, PV, YP, and gel strength were significantly increased; while the fluid loss was very low and the filter cake was very thin at 11.5 pH condition compared to 9.3 pH condition for the same concentrations, proving the ability of WSSSP to perform better under higher pH condition.
The significant enhancement in the rheological and filtration properties, suggesting the applicability of using this additive as a rheology modifier and filtration control agent. These results showed the potential use of WSSSP as an alternative for some of the toxic materials used today in the oil and gas industry. This work demonstrates that this additive will help to reduce both the impact on the environment along with reducing the cost of drilling fluid and drilling waste handling.
Li, Zhiyong (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum) | Li, Qiang (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum) | Yang, Gang (China United Coalbed Methane Co., Ltd) | Zhang, Fengyan (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences) | Ma, Tengfei (China United Coalbed Methane Co., Ltd)
Wellbore instability caused by the dispersion of the clay is one of the most important challenges in drilling operation of fractured formations. The synthesis of new plugging inhibitors and the research of drilling fluid systems are key steps to keep the wellbore stabilization. In this paper, the limitations of conventional drilling fluid inhibitors are discussed and a new plugging inhibitor PAS-5 is synthesized by using amine inhibitor, polyethylene glycol and asbestos fiber as the main monomers. The detailed synthesis step of the plugging inhibitor PAS-5 is illustrated and its action mechanism is explained by scanning electron microscopy. In order to express the good effect of the PAS-5, a new evaluation system is used to indicate its plugging performance. At the same time, the plugging inhibitor PAS-5 was used on-site drilling operation in the Ordos Basin. The results of research show that the synthesis process of PAS-5 is simple and the effect of plugging inhibition is obvious. Compared with conventional treatment agents? PAS-5 outperforms sulfonated asphalt FT-1 and emulsified asphalt RHJ-3 in terms of plugging inhibition performance, with a plugging rate of 90.5% and roller recovery rate of 93.7%. It also has better temperature resistance, there is almost no change in viscosity and filtrate loss when the temperature rises from room temperature to 80°C. The field application results indicated that PAS-5 meets the requirements of drilling, that the reaming time of the trips of the wells is shortened considerably, that the ROP is improved, and that the hole enlargement rate is less than 6%. During the drilling process, PAS-5 can inhibit formation hydration and seal small cracks, thus maintaining the stability of the borehole. This study synthesized a novel plugging inhibitor PAS-5 and an evaluation system was adopted to reveal its plugging performance, and achieved good application effect in on-site drilling operations.
Lan, Pixiang (Texas A&M University) | Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki (Khalifa University) | Iaccino, Larry L. (ExxonMobil Chemical Company) | Bao, Xiaoying (ExxonMobil Chemical Company) | Polycarpou, Andreas A. (Texas A&M University)
Application of drilling fluids with good lubrication for ERD is one of the most important methods to facilitate longer total depth (TD) of the wells. After the tribological experiments, the wear mechanisms of the additives and abrasive particles were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Introduction In the oil and gas industry, there is a global trend today moving toward ERD wells (Schamp et al. 2006; Holand et al. 2007; McCormick et al. 2011; Livescu et al. 2014a; Livescu and Craig 2017). ERD wells have at least two-times more horizontal stepout than the true vertical depth (TVD); these longer horizontal sections allow more area of the reservoir to be accessed, allow drilling from land-based rigs instead of platforms, and/or less surface-area disruption (McCormick et al. 2011). For instance, in a specific project, there were 15 ERD wells from a land wellsite, and an additional 18 ERD wells from an offshore location; the ERD wells with TD as long as 11 km from only two locations enabled the development of the field reservoirs with 2.4 billion bbl of oil and 17 trillion ft 3 If ERD distances could be increased by 30 to 40%, significant additional resources could be accessed with considerable value for energy companies around the world (Livescu et al. 2014a). With longer ERD, especially the horizontal part, the weight of the drilling pipe (also referred to as drillstring) would increase and so would the frictional losses caused by contact with the casing and openbore section; thus, high torque and drag become critical problems because of strength limitations of the drillstring (Livescu et al. 2014b). The methods of torque reduction include wellpath design, lightweight string components, and lubrication (McCormick et al. 2011; Zhang et al. 2018), with the latter being the simplest, most predictable, and, typically, the most cost-effective method (Apaleke et al. 2012; Livescu et al. 2014a).
Al-saba, M. T. (Australian College Of Kuwait) | Amadi, K. W. (Australian College Of Kuwait) | Al-Hadramy, K. O. (Australian College Of Kuwait) | Dushaishi, M. F. Al (Texas A&M International University) | Al-Hameedi, A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
With the increase in the environmental awareness across the oil and gas industry along with the strict environmental regulations related to drilling waste management, different practices have been applied to reduce the impact of drilling waste on the environment such as slim-hole drilling, effective solid control equipment, and environmental friendly drilling fluid additives. The main objective of these techniques is to reduce the volume of the disposed contaminated drill cuttings, therefore, reducing both impact on the environment and the cost related to drilling waste handling.
This paper investigates the feasibility of using bio-degradable waste as an environmental friendly drilling fluid additives. A comprehensive experimental evaluation of different bio-degradable waste materials has been carried out to investigate their effectiveness in improving the different properties of water-based drilling fluids. These waste materials, which were prepared in-house, include but not limited to grass, corncobs, sugar cane, pomegranate peel, soya bean peel, etc. The additives were evaluated at different concentrations and mixtures and the various drilling fluids properties were measured, such as filtration, pH, and rheological properties. The filtration properties were evaluated using the standard low pressure low temperature API filter press.
The results showed that some materials such as soya bean peel powder reduced the fluid loss up to 60% and improved the yield point and the gel strength up to 330 % and 640% with minor to no effect on the plastic viscosity, suggesting the applicability of using both additives as a rheology modifier and a filtration control agent. Other materials such as henna and tamarind gum outer reduced the pH dramatically, suggesting their applicability in being used as pH control agents, especially when drilling through cement.
These promising results showed a good potential for these environmental friendly drilling fluid additives (EFDFA) that were generated from waste material to be used as an alternative for some of the toxic materials currently used in the industry. Using these additives, will contribute towards reducing both; the impact on the environment as well as the overall cost of drilling fluids and drilling waste handling.
Fracture propagation is a very commonly seen phenomenon when using synthetic-based drilling fluids (SBM) in areas of narrow drilling windows. Consequently, deepwater drilling has brought lost circulation control to a more critical level. This is further compounded by other deepwater drilling- related problems such as narrow pore pressure/fracture gradient windows, cold drilling fluid temperatures, high equivalent circulating densities (ECD's), high cost per barrel and a higher cost for lost rig time/non productive time.
Induced fractures pose an even more complicated problem due to the various factors involved. These fractures can be influenced by to the nature of formation, drilling and/or by mechanical effects. One condition of paramount importance in sealing induced fractures is having the lost circulation material (LCM) effectively isolate the tip of fracture.
In its deepwater operations, Reliance introduced the use of crystalline graphite in conjunction with sized calcium carbonate into the SBM to strengthen the formation. Graphite is utilized to seal and isolate the near wellbore fractures the tip along with optimizing the rheology of the SBM. The particle size selection of the bridging particles was engineered based on software to optimize the bridging and sealing effect, which employed knowledge of the pore throat sizes and the permeability of targeted formations. This has resulted in elevating the formation integrity test pressure (FIT) and helping drill longer sections, which in normal circumstances would have been a difficult task.
The authors will discuss the design of these drilling fluid additives and their impact. Also outlined are the treatment techniques necessary to ensure minimal formation of induced fractures along with the engineering tips required to ensure successful application of such treatments. The authors will also review the results of actual formation strengthening seen in one of their exploration wells.
SPE 95196 Designing the Perfect Drilling Fluid Additive: Can It Be Done? Copyright 2005, Society of Petroleum Engineers This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE Asia Pacific Health, Safety and Environment Conference and Exhibition held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 19-20 September 2005. This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE Program Committee following review of information contained in a proposal submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper, as presented, have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its officers, or members. Papers presented at SPE meetings are subject to publication review by Editorial Committees of the Society of Petroleum Engineers.
J. M. Getliff and S. G. James, SPE, Dowell division of Schlumberger Evaluation and Production Services (UK) Ltd.
Alkyl-phenol ethoxylates (APEO) are a class of surfactants which have been used widely in the drilling fluid industry. The popularity of these surfactants is based on their cost effectiveness, availability and the range of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance values obtainable. Studies have shown that APEOs exhibit oestrogenic effects, and can cause sterility in some male aquatic species. This may have subsequent human consequences and such problems have lead to a banning of their use in some countries and agreements to phase out their use e.g. PARCOM recommendation 92/8.
The use of APEOs as additives in detergents, lubricants and stuck-pipe release agents for drilling fluid applications is discussed. The effectiveness of products formulated with APEOs are directly compared with alternative products which are nonpersistent and less damaging to aquatic species. Lubricity measurements using standard and in-house designed equipment and washing tests to compare the efficiency of surfactants are explained and product performance results presented.
The results show that alternatives to products containing APEOs are available and that in some cases they show a better technical performance. In addition to the improved environmental acceptability of the base chemicals, the better performance enables lower concentrations to be used, hence reducing the environmental impact even further.
Alkyl-phenol ethoxylate surfactants have been used for many years in a wide range of applications such as detergents, paints, herbicides and pesticides and they are also widely used in the oil industry. APEOs were first introduced into the UK in the 1940s and have become the 2nd largest group of non-ionic surfactants with worldwide production of 390,000 tonnes per annum.
Concern has increased recently about the widespread usage of APEOs because of their relatively stable biodegradation metabolites, especially the compounds nonylphenol and octylphenol, and their oestrogenic properties. This is part of a wider problem that includes other oestrogenic xenobiotics such as pthalates, bisphenol-A, PCBs and dioxins. This paper is particularly concerned with APEOs which are widely used in the oilfield but have several negative ecotoxicological characteristics that make their environmental acceptability questionable.
The microbial degradation, particularly during waste water treatment, of products containing APEOs results in refractory metabolites that are resistant to further biodegradation and are more toxic than their parent compounds. Nonylphenol has been demonstrated to be toxic to both marine and freshwater species, to induce oestrogenic responses in male trout, and may bioaccumulate in freshwater organisms. Concern over their possible environmental effects has led to the banning of NPEOs from cleaning products in Germany and Switzerland.
Norway has also banned their use offshore and APEOs are no longer used in household detergents in many European countries where usage is declining. A voluntary ban has been introduced on their domestic use in the UK and OSPARCOM (formerly known as PARCOM) has agreed that, as of January 1995, NPEOs and similar substances should no longer be used in domestic cleaning agents. Likewise OSPARCOM members have also agreed that they will no longer be used in industrial cleaning agents by the year 2000. In spite of this they are still widely used in many other large industrialized countries e.g. the US & Japan and are used in many other products and formulations where suitable replacement products have yet to be found. This paper attempts to describe in broad terms the environmental problems associated with APEOs and discusses how the environmental properties of drilling fluid additives and oil field chemicals can be improved by the removal of APEOs by direct omission, replacement with linear alcohol ethoxylates or the use of completely different chemistry.
The guidelines for selection of a drilling fluid additive have changed during the past few years. No longer is performance the only criterion to characterize an additive. Demands on the drilling mud specialist to select the correct additive comes not only from drilling personnel, but also from explorationists, production personnel, purchasing agents, and governmental agencies.
Recent advances in analytical instrumentation and techniques utilizing gas chromatography and pyrolysis have provided geological personnel insight into the masking effects of mud additives in evaluation of exploration prospects. Government regulations on both offshore and land operations have restricted or precluded certain additives which normally would be used in this environment. Concerns about the damaging effects of mud additives in hydrocarbon production zones have increased in our present efforts to maximize production. The mud specialist faces a dilemma in selecting an additive which can satisfy and/or minimize these concerns.
This paper lists seven parameters which one company uses to characterize and rank drilling fluid additives. These include cost, performance, quality, environmental effects, production and exploration evaluation compatibility, drilling utilization, and logistics. In addition, the paper discusses the methods this company uses in evaluating additives under these established parameters and how the information is disseminated to operating units for utilization.
In order to establish a need for characterizing drilling fluid additives, there has to be recognition of a problem or problems. The most recognizable problem is field performance. This, however, is not the only criterion f or alerting one to the need for characterizing drilling fluid additives. Recent changes in governmental laws concerning air pollution, clean water, hazardous waste disposal, and occupational health and safety have dictated and directed the petroleum industry to re-evaluate all aspects of drilling and production. These changes have greatly affected drilling fluid product choices. Products must not only perform and meet minimum specifications, but must also meet government environmental standards.
The drilling mud specialist must consider other aspects of product applicability such as reservoir compatibility. Production and exploration concerns regarding formation damage and prospect evaluations now greatly influence product choices. New and improved techniques for geological evaluation have provided geological personnel insight into the masking effects of additives used in drilling fluids. The selection process becomes further complicated by purchasing personnel who must obtain the best pricing, but may not be aware of other necessary selection criteria. Thus, the drilling mud specialist must be keenly aware of all parameters of characterizing and selecting drilling fluid additives for any given area.
The characterizing of drilling fluid additives is a never-ending evolutionary process as more concerns surface. Our company initiated a program several years ago to address some of these concerns. This paper discusses methods that the Drilling Mud Services Section in Chevron's Drilling Technology Center (DTC) uses to characterize mud additives. These methods maximize decision making throughout the company for selecting the right products for the right job.
A novel inorganic compound has been developed that combines with dispersed bentonite producing a fluid which exhibits unusual shale inhibition, solids suspension, and contamination resistance. Laboratory and field test data are discussed.
over the last several years a great deal of research has been done in the area of mixed metal layered hydroxide chemistry. Until recently, the bulk of the efforts were fundamental in nature. Recent endeavors have become more applications oriented. The work that is described here is the result of this research effort, utilizing a compound that was engineered to produce the properties described below .
STRUCTURE AND CHEMISTRY
Mixed metal layered hydroxide compounds (MMLHC) are inorganic materials which are made up of discreet layers, consisting of two or more metal ions surrounded by hydroxide ions. Due to symmetry considerations, there is not enough room in the unit cell to accommodate a stoichiometric number of hydroxide ions. Thus, the sheets are electron deficient and a crystallographic positive charge is generated, Figure 1. Because the positive charge must be balanced by anions in order to achieve electrical neutrality, anions associate with the basal plane of the crystallites. The surface interacts with these anions through an ion exchange mechanism, similar to that of anion exchange resin or clay mineral.
The MMLHC that is being utilized in this application consists of very small particles having dimensions of approximately 0.05 microns in diameter by approximately 0.0008 microns thick. Thus when dispersed, the particles are smaller than an average bentonite particle. Due to their particle size and positive charge density, the particles are capable of interacting with cation exchangers such as sodium bentonite through an ion exchange mechanism, producing a salt as a by product. Figure 2. is a diagram which illustrates this reaction. Here, MMLHC in the chloride form reacts with sodium bentonite to produce the bentonite-MMLHC complex.
Figures 3 through 6 are transmission electron micrographs of specimens prepared by McAtee's techniques . Dilute dispersions were atomized onto grids chilled to -195C. The ice was then sublimed at 10- mm of mercury and the grids were sputter coated with carbon film to preserve the samples. The micrographs were taken with a JEOL 2000CX Analytical Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope.