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Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Trevino, Hector A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
The purpose of this paper is to create a starting point for research into using friendly and biodegradable waste material as supportive items for hydraulic fracturing fluids and additives. Conventional fluids and additives, although they can be effective, they pose serious threats to work personnel and public health and to the environment. Conventional fluids and additives can also be very costly. These risks and concerns should drive the oil and gas industry to pursue alternative options, safer and cheaper options, from conventional fracturing fluids and additives. Some waste materials provide this opportunity. It is apparent through many forms of research that waste materials are readily available globally making it easy and cheap to obtain. A driving force for this research was research previously done on finding alternative additives for drilling fluids. Researchers have proven that some of the waste materials, such as food waste, grass waste, palm tree waste, among many others, can and should replace or at least boost conventional drilling fluids and additives through a series of experiments and tests. Not only are these materials easier and cheaper to obtain, but they are also efficient and safer for both the environment and people. The same could be said for alternative hydraulic fracturing fluids and additives if proper research is done. The strides made in finding alternatives for drilling fluid additives have pushed the revolutionizing of the oil and gas industry, acting as a catalyst for the research into alternative hydraulic fracturing fluids and additives. In this work, a more thorough investigation into conventional fracturing fluids and their downfalls regarding price and health and environmental concerns are illustrated as well as the function of the main fracturing fluids; water fracs, linear gels, crosslinked gels, oil-based fluids, and foam/poly-emulsions. Throughout this paper, it becomes apparent that the oil and gas industry should attempt replacing or decreasing conventional fracturing fluids additives because of the negative influences they have on profit, people's health and safety, and the environment.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Salem, Ebrahem (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Knickerbocker, Matthew D. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alashwak, Naser F. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mutar, Rusul A. (Ministry of Communications and Technology, Iraq) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
The utilization of traditional chemicalS added substances to control drilling mud characteristics overwhelmingly negatively affect people and the environment, they are originally utilized to help control/regulate the seepage loss, the rheological properties, or other physical specifications. Utilizing eco-friendly and biodegradable options are not just more secure than customary strategies yet demonstrates no damage to drilling personnel and is more economically practical than traditional techniques.
A conceivable alternative for biodegradable and eco-friendly added substance is including differing concentrations of banana peel powder (BPP) to water-based mud. To test the impacts of BPP in water-based mud, three distinct investigations were led utilizing different grouping of BPP. Utilizing low-temperature and low-pressure (LTLP) API standard tests for drilling fluid, the readings were effectively recorded to comprehend the effects of BPP added materials on the mud attributes. The seven testing procedures performed were rheometer/viscometer, LTLP filtration, mud balance, chemical titration, resistivity device, and pH and temperature tests.
Looking at the experimental findings, 1% (6 gm), 2% (12 gm), and 3% (18 gm) were first evaluated at room temperature and pressure. Adding BPP showed little to no effect on the mud density. However, for the rheological properties, the experimental additives resulted in increasing plastic viscosity (PV), yield point (YP), especially at 3% concentration. The BPP also showed excellent behavior for the initial and final gel strength as compared to the reference mud. Other properties that remarkably reduced were the pH levels and mud resistivity, which decreased as more BPP was added. The experimental mud filtration at 7.5 minutes and 30 minutes also showed a great improvement along with the filter cake thickness proving it to be a multipurpose effective drilling additive for water-based fluids. Additionally, other properties such as temperature, which was not affected, salinity (NaCl) and calcium content (Ca++) changed due to the increase in BPP concentration. The salinity was significantly increased for the mud, mud cake, and mud filtrate; while the calcium content was decreased from 52 mg/L to 8 mg/L by introducing 3% BPP additive. After experimenting with different concentrations of BPP, it can be concluded that there was an overall improvement in the mud's properties.
The outcomes and economic evaluation of the BPP revealed that it can possibly be used as biodegradable drilling fluid additives other than conventional chemical additives. Considering the outcomes recently expressed demonstrating the decrease in pH, filtration specifications, and Ca++; while increasing in viscosity and NaCl properties. This work traces the probability of moving towards BPP as a biodegradable drilling fluid additive that is more financially feasible elective, than conventional chemical additives. BPP is by all accounts an increasingly reasonable choice moving ahead later on.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Feliz, Justin D. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alshammari, Abdullah F. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Albazzaz, Hussien W. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Hamoud, Zahra A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mutar, Rusul A. (Ministry of Communications and Technology, Iraq) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
The use of conventional chemical additives to control drilling mud specifications causes serious health, safety, and environmental side effects. To mitigate these lasting hazards, an economic multifunctional bioenhancers should be exploited as additives in place of the traditional materials to achieve the desired drilling mud properties. Using a bioenhancer is not only safer for the environment, but it poses no risk to drilling personnel and is more cost-efficient than conventional methods.
In this work, two concentrations of is Palm Tree Leave Powder (PTLP) were added to the base mud and drilling fluid properties were measured. The pH test demonstrated PTLP’s ability to minimize alkalinity. At 1.5% (11 gm) PTLP, the pH was decreased by 21%, while 3% (22 gm) PTLP showed a reduction of 28%. A reduction in seepage loss (cc/30min) of 26% and 32% was also observed, respectively, when comparing it to the reference fluid. Simultaneous improvement of the mud cake was seen over the reference fluid, signifying PTLP could also substitute fluid loss control agents. The plastic viscosity (PV) of the reference fluid was insignificantly affected by the introduction 1.5% (11gm) PTLP. However, when the concentration of PTLP was increased to 3% (22 gm) a tangible increase in PV was seen due to the inefficient grinding of the palm tree leaves (PTL) and irregular dispersal of particle sizes. To mitigate this, a more effective form of grinding for PTL is needed as well as a sieve analysis to ensure equal distribution of particle sizes. The second component of viscosity, yield point (YP), was drastically reduced by 59% at both 1.5% (11 gm) and 3% (22 gm) as compared to the reference fluid. Additionally, initial and final gel strengths were significantly reduced at both concentrations. These results are an indicator that PTLP can be a viable option as a thinning material for water-based mud.
Considering the previously stated results, PTLP can be a feasible replacement or at least supportive material for conventional pH reducers, filtration loss control agents, and viscosity thinners. This biodegradable drilling mud additive shows great potential and is a practical option to replace or at least support toxic chemicals traditionally used such as lignosulphonate, chrome-lignite, and Resinex. This work outlines a practical guide for reducing drilling fluid costs as well as the impact on drilling personnel and the environment.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, Mustafa A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alshammari, Abdullah F. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Albazzaz, Hussien W. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkhamis, Mohammed M. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Rusul A., Mutar (Ministry of Communications and Technology, Iraq) | Al-Bazzaz, Waleed H. (Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research)
The main objective of this paper is to develop a new material used to control the seepage losses and combat issues regarding thick mud cake. The plan is to develop a biodegradable waste material from Grass, which is environmentally friendly to be utilized as an alternative material to address filtration problems. Raw material from local Grass in the USA was used to construct the fibrous fluid loss control agent (Grass Powder). The lab procedure consisted of crushing and grinding process to assemble the samples to be ready for preparation. Spud mud samples were used as a guide to indicate filtration control. The material was tested to generate results from the experiments conducted at surface conditions to determine the reduction in the volume of filtrate and mud cake. Based on the experiments conducted, Grass Powder (GP) can be applied to treat problems associated with the seepage loss in the drilling operations. The grass availability, being eco-friendly, low cost, and the simple method of Grass Powder preparation by using grinding and crushing can prove to be a suitable replacement for conventional materials used to control filtration.
Then, the results of Grass Powder were compared to starch, commonly used conventional additive. The results showed that Grass Powder decreased the fluid loss by 44% at 1% (7 grams) concentration of GP, and the filter cake was enhanced as well when comparing it to the reference fluid. While the starch material showed an improvement in seepage loss by 40% at 1% (7 grams) concentration when comparing it to the reference fluid. In addition, starch was less efficient in improving the filter cake as compared to Grass Powder. Consequently, GP laboratory outcomes slightly showed better performance as compared to starch additive, suggesting the feasibility of Grass Powder to be used as fluid loss control agents.
In brief, these experimental results exhibit that Grass Powder has the potential to be utilized as biodegradable drilling fluid additives replacing chemical additives and reducing the amount of non-biodegradable waste disposed to the environment.
Al-Hameedi, A. T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, H. H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, S. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkhamis, M. M. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alshammari, A. F. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Al-Alwani, M. A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mutar, R. A. (Ministry of Communications and Technology)
ABSTRACT: The non-biodegradable additives used in controlling drilling fluid properties cause harm to the environment and personal safety. Thus, there is a need for alternative drilling fluid additives to reduce the amount of non-biodegradable waste disposed to the environment. This work investigates the potential of using Mandarin Peels Powder (MPP), a food waste product, as a new environmental friendly drilling fluid additive. A complete set of tests were conducted to recognize the impact of MPP on the drilling fluid properties. The results of MPP were compared to low viscosity Polyanionic Cellulose (PAC-LV), commonly used chemical additive for the drilling fluid. The results showed that MPP reduced the alkalinity by 20-32% and modified the rheological properties (plastic viscosity (PV), yield point (YP), and gel strength) of the drilling fluid. The fluid loss decreased by 44-68% at concentrations of MPP as less as 1-4%, and filter cake was enhanced as well when comparing to the reference mud. In addition, MPP had a negligible to minor impact on mud weight, and this effect was resulted due to foaming issues. Other properties such as salinity, calcium content, and resistivity were negligibly affected by MPP. This makes MPP an effective material to be used as pH reducer, a viscosity modifier, and an excellent fluid loss agent. This work also provides a practical guide for minimizing the cost of the drilling fluid through economic, environmental, and safety considerations, by comparing MPP with PAC-LV.
Drilling fluid is a complex system that consists of liquids, solids, and chemicals. The base of the drilling fluid can be water, oil, or in some cases both. Several types of chemicals and polymers are added to the base fluid to meet the required properties of the drilling fluid such as viscosity, density, fluid loss control, and chemical composition. The factors that guide the selection of base fluid and the additives are complex and well discussed (Gray et al., 1980; Okorie 2009). Environmental considerations led to an increase in the interest of using water-based drilling fluid over oil-based drilling fluid due to the high toxicity of the latter, especially in environmentally sensitive locations. In addition, most of the conventional chemical additives fall under the category of non-biodegradable materials and poses several dangers when released to the environment. These additives including but not limited to; potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, polyamine, and fluid loss additives etc., which have an overall negative environmental impact (Amanullah, 2007). Thus, there is a demand for new environmentally friendly additives that can help to control the drilling fluid properties and improve their effectiveness with the least effects on the environment.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alashwak, Nawaf A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alshammari, Abdullah F. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkhamis, Mohammed M. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mutar, Rusul A. (Ministry of Communications and Technology, Iraq) | Ashammarey, Alaa (IT Consultant/Contractor)
Drilling wastes generated in large volumes is recognized to have many effects on the environment. Several techniques have been applied by the oil and gas industry to overcome the impacts of drilling waste on the environment, an example of these techniques is using environmentally friendly drilling fluid additives.
This work investigates the potential of using Fibrous Food Waste Material (FFWM) as an environmentally friendly drilling fluid additive. This material was prepared in-house. Experimental evaluation has been carried out to investigate the ability of FFWM to enhance several properties of water-based drilling fluid under two different pH conditions. The FFWM was first evaluated at 9.3 pH then the pH was increased using sodium hydroxide to 11.5. Several properties of drilling fluid were measured. The measurements included testing the rheological properties using viscometer, measuring the filtration using standard low-pressure low-temperature filter press, the pH using pH tester, and other important properties.
The findings of this work showed that FFWM in 9.3 pH environment reduced the fluid loss by 18% and 30% when 1% and 2% concentrations of FFWM were added, respectively. This reduction in fluid loss was along with forming a thin filter cake. The filter cake thickness of the reference fluid was decreased from 3 mm to 2.14 mm and 1.9 mm at 1% and 2% concentrations of FFWM. Additionally, FFWM resulted in increasing the plastic viscosity (PV) compared to the reference fluid by 33.33% at 1% and 2% concentrations. While the yield point (YP) was increased by 22.22% and 44.44% when 1% and 2% concentrations of FFWM were added, respectively. Both the initial and final gel strengths were increased by 27.27%, 44.44 %, 7.14% and 14.28% at 1% and 2% concentrations, respectively. Moreover, the results in 11.5 pH emphasized the efficient performance of FFWM, and it showed better improvement in the filtration specifications and the rheological properties. In other words, PV, YP, and gel strength were significantly increased; while the fluid loss was very low and the filter cake was very thin at 11.5 pH condition compared to 9.3 pH condition for the same concentrations, proving the ability of FFWM to perform better under higher pH condition.
The significant enhancement in the rheological and filtration properties, suggesting the applicability of using this additive as a rheology modifier and filtration control agent. These results showed the potential use of FFWM as an alternative for some of the toxic materials used today in the oil and gas industry. This work demonstrates that this additive will help to reduce both the impact on the environment along with reducing the cost of drilling fluid and drilling waste handling.
Al-Hameedi, Abo Taleb T. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, Husam H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Dunn-Norman, Shari (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Albazzaz, Hussien W. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkhamis, Mohammed M. (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
Drilling fluid additives play an important role in drilling engineering. Drilling fluids assist in transporting the cuttings to the surface, control formation pressure, and cool the bit. The most common fluid additives that are used in drilling fluids are the chemical additives such as barite, bentonite, caustic soda and many more. Each chemical additive has its own set of applications. Chemical additives are used for rheological properties, filtration controls, and many more. These traditional chemical additives give promising results, but they have some side effects that are commonly ignored. These side effects include cost, health, safety, and environmental concerns.
This paper presents a new alternative for drilling fluid additives which are the food waste products that are discarded by people. The main objective is to be able to use food waste products as drilling fluid additives to improve the mud rheological properties and avoid any environmental issues that are commonly caused by conventional chemical additives. The food waste products are available everywhere and are easily accessible making them a good candidate for further investigation. The cost of food waste products is less compared to the cost of chemical additives and food waste products are friendlier to the environment. The average total cost of drilling operations is expensive, and part of that expense includes the cost of drilling fluids, which is also generally high. By using food waste products, the total cost for drilling operations reduces, providing a better economic solution. Food waste products account for about 8.2% of greenhouse gas emissions and they can be utilized for better uses such as drilling fluid additives. It is also generally safer to handle food waste in comparison with chemical additives as some chemical additives have hazards that require proper equipment in order to be handled.
Food waste products have the potential to compete with traditional chemical additives and they might be a good alternative. Several investigations have been carried out by people using food waste products. From the previous work and experiments carried out by people, it has shown that food waste products generally improve the mud rheological properties and fluid loss control. From the previous work, there are several shortcomings that can be avoided suggesting more evaluations. Further investigation and experiments should be carried out to gain more information and results of food waste products as a drilling fluid additive in order to be used for future drilling projects.
Li, Zhiyong (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum) | Li, Qiang (State Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources and Prospecting, China University of Petroleum) | Yang, Gang (China United Coalbed Methane Co., Ltd) | Zhang, Fengyan (Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences) | Ma, Tengfei (China United Coalbed Methane Co., Ltd)
Wellbore instability caused by the dispersion of the clay is one of the most important challenges in drilling operation of fractured formations. The synthesis of new plugging inhibitors and the research of drilling fluid systems are key steps to keep the wellbore stabilization. In this paper, the limitations of conventional drilling fluid inhibitors are discussed and a new plugging inhibitor PAS-5 is synthesized by using amine inhibitor, polyethylene glycol and asbestos fiber as the main monomers. The detailed synthesis step of the plugging inhibitor PAS-5 is illustrated and its action mechanism is explained by scanning electron microscopy. In order to express the good effect of the PAS-5, a new evaluation system is used to indicate its plugging performance. At the same time, the plugging inhibitor PAS-5 was used on-site drilling operation in the Ordos Basin. The results of research show that the synthesis process of PAS-5 is simple and the effect of plugging inhibition is obvious. Compared with conventional treatment agents? PAS-5 outperforms sulfonated asphalt FT-1 and emulsified asphalt RHJ-3 in terms of plugging inhibition performance, with a plugging rate of 90.5% and roller recovery rate of 93.7%. It also has better temperature resistance, there is almost no change in viscosity and filtrate loss when the temperature rises from room temperature to 80°C. The field application results indicated that PAS-5 meets the requirements of drilling, that the reaming time of the trips of the wells is shortened considerably, that the ROP is improved, and that the hole enlargement rate is less than 6%. During the drilling process, PAS-5 can inhibit formation hydration and seal small cracks, thus maintaining the stability of the borehole. This study synthesized a novel plugging inhibitor PAS-5 and an evaluation system was adopted to reveal its plugging performance, and achieved good application effect in on-site drilling operations.
Zhu, Qi (The Fourth Branch Company of CNPC Bohai Drilling Engineering Company Limited) | Wang, Yong (The Fourth Branch Company of CNPC Bohai Drilling Engineering Company Limited) | Zhang, Yongqing (The Fourth Branch Company of CNPC Bohai Drilling Engineering Company Limited) | Sun, Zhihe (Engineering Technology Institute of PetroChina Huabei Oilfield Company) | Wei, Yinghui (The Fourth Branch Company of CNPC Bohai Drilling Engineering Company Limited) | Wang, Runping (The Fourth Branch Company of CNPC Bohai Drilling Engineering Company Limited)
Currently, synthetic additives are widely used in drilling fluid, but these additives have hazards, such as, toxicity, difficult to degradation, leakage and volatilization caused great influence to wellsite environment. Environmentally friendly drilling fluid has been appeared around for decade. However, because of high cost of raw materials, lack of adequate supplement and complexity of modified synthetic process, there has been no widespread industrial application in China. The majority of test wells are straight, but deviated well and highly-deviated well test is seldom reported.
A series of indoor evaluation and field applications were carried out in process of modifying low cost additives to the environmentally friendly treatment agents. HTHP aging and filtration experiment to verify temperature resistance; adding sodium chloride to verify anti-salt properties; adding bentonite and cuttings recycling experiment to verify inhibition performance of slurry and mud shale; friction resistance experiment verifies that lubrication capacity meets deviated well and highly-deviated well operations; core flow experiment to verify reservoir protection performance; heavy metal, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, biological toxicity analysis experiment to verify influence of the system on environment.
Ability of temperature resist 120 °C, anti-salt ability reaches saturation and recovery of cuttings is more than 85%. Environmental performance of the drilling fluid system is ideal, EC50 value is 1.61×105, no biological toxicity, BOD5/CODcr is 0.11, easy biodegradation. Field application for morethan 30 wells, with beyond 20 deviated wells and highly-deviation angle more than 50 ° wells are 10.
The new types downhole tools for speeding-up and controlling hole size, rotary impactor and wellbore cleaner, were used to improve mechanical penetration rate (ROP) and wellbore cleaning. After employing the environment system, the drilling fluid does not need to be transshipped and processed directly in wellsite, and well fields are restored. Drilling fluid disposal process saves the cost of artificial working, transportation and environmental management. This drilling fluid system is first applied on-site in North China, which fills the blanks and provids reliable technical support and reference examples for the subsequent replacement of drilling fluid systems used now in North China.
Al-saba, M. T. (Australian College Of Kuwait) | Amadi, K. W. (Australian College Of Kuwait) | Al-Hadramy, K. O. (Australian College Of Kuwait) | Dushaishi, M. F. Al (Texas A&M International University) | Al-Hameedi, A. (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Alkinani, H. (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
With the increase in the environmental awareness across the oil and gas industry along with the strict environmental regulations related to drilling waste management, different practices have been applied to reduce the impact of drilling waste on the environment such as slim-hole drilling, effective solid control equipment, and environmental friendly drilling fluid additives. The main objective of these techniques is to reduce the volume of the disposed contaminated drill cuttings, therefore, reducing both impact on the environment and the cost related to drilling waste handling.
This paper investigates the feasibility of using bio-degradable waste as an environmental friendly drilling fluid additives. A comprehensive experimental evaluation of different bio-degradable waste materials has been carried out to investigate their effectiveness in improving the different properties of water-based drilling fluids. These waste materials, which were prepared in-house, include but not limited to grass, corncobs, sugar cane, pomegranate peel, soya bean peel, etc. The additives were evaluated at different concentrations and mixtures and the various drilling fluids properties were measured, such as filtration, pH, and rheological properties. The filtration properties were evaluated using the standard low pressure low temperature API filter press.
The results showed that some materials such as soya bean peel powder reduced the fluid loss up to 60% and improved the yield point and the gel strength up to 330 % and 640% with minor to no effect on the plastic viscosity, suggesting the applicability of using both additives as a rheology modifier and a filtration control agent. Other materials such as henna and tamarind gum outer reduced the pH dramatically, suggesting their applicability in being used as pH control agents, especially when drilling through cement.
These promising results showed a good potential for these environmental friendly drilling fluid additives (EFDFA) that were generated from waste material to be used as an alternative for some of the toxic materials currently used in the industry. Using these additives, will contribute towards reducing both; the impact on the environment as well as the overall cost of drilling fluids and drilling waste handling.