This research paper is aimed at explaining how information technology projects are effected by good risk management. Consequently, it can be used as reference for IS managers. It answers our concern of how risk management contributes to IT project success. Obviously, we investigated how project risk management effects IT projects, which is essential in various industrial activities. We looked into some estimates of the effects of risk management in IT projects. Our methodology approach showed how performance evaluation can be utilized to assess the impact of risk management on such projects.
Well testing is an integral element in reservoir and fluid characterization. It is a continuously developing discipline and has seen steady progress over the years. Interpretation techniques have evolved significantly over time, starting with straight-line analysis, then onto log-log analysis, followed by log-log derivative analysis and finally onto the newest standing technique today, deconvolution. Shutting in wells in producing fields to carry out pressure transient analysis can prove to be difficult and often expensive. Frequent short shut-ins are normally dictated by operational well requirements, however, these shut-ins are normally not long enough for the classical pressure transient analysis to be conducted. In this paper, we show how this issue can be resolved by applying deconvolution methods to aid us with pressure transient analysis for these short build up durations
Deconvolution is fundamentally a mathematical algorithm used to convert variable rate data to constant rate data. In other words, it can be used to convert data into a single drawdown with a constant rate. This conversion yields to simplified analysis by allowing more of the same data to be analyzed. As a result of this approach, attaining definite conclusions about reservoir properties becomes possible. Prior to this, unclear and uncertain conclusions were often made.
The data presented below was first analyzed using standard transient analysis techniques. This resulted in non-unique solutions. The data was later analyzed using the deconvolution algorithm (
In this paper, we demonstrate that for a given production scenario, a dedicated well test may not necessarily be required. Instead, deconvolution can be utilized on short build ups, which are often already conducted for well maintenance, leading to both clearer results and significant cost savings.
Recovery mechanism due to brine injection (Dynamic Water, Low Salinity, etc.) in carbonate remains a point of discussion and widely open for research. As wettability alteration is heavily suggested as the main driver for recovery, this study focuses on the in-situ evaluation of wettability alteration due to multiple successive dynamic water flooding of carbonate cores plugs.
Five different core flooding with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Initial results on two samples that are of similar
The results clearly indicate, for the first time, an in-situ wettability alteration due to Dynamic Water injection as demonstrated by NMR
Condensate banking is one of the most challenging problems in shale gas exploitation as it acts as flow choke around hydraulic fractures reducing the drainage of shale matrix. Thus, fracture spacing optimisation is a key element of shale gas and condensate field development. For shale gas reservoirs, more accurate models are needed to describe the gas-condensate flow in the shale matrix where the flow mechanism and phase behaviour are different from those of conventional reservoirs.
In this paper, new models developed for flow behaviour and phase behaviour to estimate well productivity as function of time are presented. The Knudsen flow was used to model apparent gas permeability in shale matrix as a function of pressure and pore size distribution. A modified Peng-Robinson EOS was used to evaluate the condensate saturation in the matrix under capillary pressure effect. A semi-analytical well model was also developed to evaluate well productivity under constant pressure.
The results show substantial difference and impact with the application of Knudsen flow when compared with conventional Darcy law. Using conventional Darcy flow
This study shows the importance of using flow behaviour deviation model in well completion optimisation for shale gas-condensate fields. Using conventional flow models can undermine the economic viability of gas-condensate shale reservoirs by underestimation of optimum fracture spacing.
This paper presents an overview of the technical challenges in the design of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) and the recent development of design guidelines for FOWTs. Extensive case studies, which evaluated the characteristic load conditions and global responses of FOWTs, are carried out to verify the design criteria. Three design concepts, including a Spar-type, a TLP-type, and a Semisubmersible-type floating wind turbine support structure and their associated stationkeeping systems, are selected for the case studies. Representative operational and extreme storm environmental conditions of the East, West and Gulf of Mexico coastal regions on the US Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are considered. State-of-the-art simulation techniques are employed for the fully coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic analysis of the integrated FOWT model. Relative importance of various design parameters as well as its impact on the development of design criteria are evaluated through parametric analyses. The paper is concluded with a brief introduction of the recently published ABS Guide for Building and Classing Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Installation.
A significant portion of offshore wind energy resources in the United States are available in water depths greater than 30 meters in the offshore regions near highly populated coastal states. At this and greater water depths, floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs) could become more economical than bottom-founded designs.
Existing design concepts of floating support structures and stationkeeping systems for FOWTs are mostly developed based on experience from the offshore oil and gas industry, which has witnessed nearly 60 years of designing and operating floating offshore structures. There is a wealth of knowledge about hydrocarbon-related offshore structures installed on the US Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). What makes FOWTs unique, however, is the presence of wind turbines that follow a very different design approach. Strong interactions between the wind turbine, floating support structure and stationkeeping system also pose a great challenge to the design of FOWTs. Economic considerations for typically unmanned FOWTs further require leaner designs, serial production and mass deployment.
For these reasons, it is not technically sound or economically acceptable to transfer existing technologies of hydrocarbon-related offshore structures directly to FOWTs without further calibrations and necessary modifications. To address this, the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), U.S. Department of the Interior, awarded a research project to ABS in 2011 under its Technology Assessment and Research Program. The project was aimed at conducting a thorough review of existing technologies relevant to FOWT floating support structure and stationkeeping system designs and evaluating global load and response characteristics using the latest simulation methods. A draft design guideline for FOWT floating support structures and stationkeeping systems also was proposed based on the research findings of that project.
This paper presents a summary of the BSEE-funded research (Yu and Chen, 2012) as well as the subsequent development of the ABS Guide for Building and Classing Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Installation (ABS, 2013).
Mathematical models are derived to allow the analysis of the effect of the conductivity in the dissipation of acoustical propagations through porous media, by defining a conductivity for these media, related to their well-known parameter, the permeability. The results rendered by the method as applied to a set of realistic data found in the literature indicate how promising the method is.
We propose a methodology to conduct fluid substitution in low porosity and very low permeability shale (tight shale). Gassmann''s equations are often used to predict the change in the rock''s elastic properties when the pore space fluid is replaced with a second fluid. These equations assume that the wave-induced pore pressures are equilibrated throughout the pore space. When sonic
Frequency-dependent AVO contains additional attributes of the reservoir, which can enhance the accuracy of the seismic interpretation. Conventional geological models usually used to AVO analysis are thick layers. However, thin layers (thickness below tuning thickness) might be significant reservoirs or important flow units within reservoirs. One difficulty with extracting the additional attributes from thin layers is that the tuning effects affect seismic amplitudes, which can mask or at least alter the features that are associated with permeability and fluid content. Therefore, to best analyze these AVO attributes in different frequencies, it is necessary first to correct the spectral data for the effects of the thin beds. This paper presents one approach to remove the effects of thin-beds on frequency-dependent AVO analysis via spectral inversion.
The aim of this work is to study the feasibility of characterizing CO
During the well production life, rock properties are usually changed when the reservoirs experience different stress state conditions. This study analyzes the effect of different stress values and stress state conditions (Uniaxial, Triaxial and Hydrostatic) on permeability and fluid flow for homogeneous and laminated (Lamination parallel to fluid flow), fractured and unfractured rocks. Experimental results show that the rock permeability changes in response to applying variable stresses and stress state conditions. As effective stress increases, permeability decreases and the decrease is more pronounced for fractured rocks. Laminated unfractured sample show little variation on permeability compared to 20% permeability reduction for homogenous sample when uniaxial stress is applied radialy. When triaxial stresses were applied, unfractured homogenous rocks experienced significant permeability reduction compared to lower reduction for laminated sample. In hydrostatic stress condition, the reduction in permeability for the unfractured sample is almost the same for homogenous and laminated core samples. Fractured homogenous and laminated samples experienced significant reduction in permeability under uniaxial stress. When triaxial and hydrostatic stress state conditions were applied, fractured laminated rocks experienced significant permeability reduction compared to lower reduction for homogenous sample for both stress state conditions.