Wang, Lei (CNPC Research Institute of Safety & Environment Technology) | Du, Weidong (CNPC Research Institute of Safety & Environment Technology) | Chu, Shengli (CNPC Research Institute of Safety & Environment Technology) | Shi, Mingjie (CNPC Research Institute of Safety & Environment Technology) | Li, Jiayi (CNPC Research Institute of Safety & Environment Technology)
Because of the characteristics of high temperature, high pressure, flammability, explosion and high risk, safety accidents occur frequently in petroleum industry. In order to avoid and prevent safety accidents, it is necessary to promote the construction of safety culture in petroleum industry. With the progress of science and technology, some intelligent technologies (such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality, augmented reality, etc.) have become an indispensable means for the construction of safety culture.
Safety culture has experienced fatalism, empiricism, systematism and essentialism, and its connotation has been constantly enriched and innovated. Essentialism, in the final analysis, emphasizes the prevention and prevention of safety accidents, and holds that safety science and technology is the prerequisite to ensure safe production. Artificial intelligence (
Artificial intelligence is a science that studies the laws of human intelligence activities and can simulate some human behaviors. Intelligent robots that store safety knowledge and safety laws and regulations can publicize and train safety production knowledge and warn unsafe behavior through machine learning and natural language processing.
The interactive three-dimensional dynamic scene of safety production with multi-information fusion can be reconstructed by using virtual reality technology to simulate the interactive three-dimensional dynamic scene of safety production with multi-information fusion, so that employees can immerse in the production site. All links of safety accidents can be vividly displayed in front of employees, so that employees can clarify the causes and consequences of safety accidents.
Augmented reality is a new technology that seamlessly integrates real world information and virtual world information. Therefore, it can overlay the real scene of the oil industry accident scene (such as, fire and explosion, gas leakage, etc.) and response after the accident, display various auxiliary information to the users through the helmet display, and increase the authenticity of the oil industry staff emergency drill.
The application of intelligent technology not only increases the interest of safety culture propaganda, but also enhances the staff's sense of experience in emergency drill. More importantly, it plays an important role in the construction of enterprise safety culture.
A flare or vent disposal system collects and discharges gas from atmospheric or pressurized process components to the atmosphere to safe locations for final release during normal operations and abnormal conditions (emergency relief). In vent systems, the gas exiting the system is dispersed in the atmosphere. Flare systems generally have a pilot or ignition device that ignites the gas exiting the system because the discharge may be either continuous or intermittent. Gas-disposal systems for tanks operating near atmospheric pressure are often called atmospheric vents or flares, and gas-disposal systems for pressure vessels are called pressure vents or flares. A flare or vent system from a pressurized source may include a control valve, collection piping, flashback protection, and a gas outlet. A scrubbing vessel should be provided to remove liquid hydrocarbons. The actual configuration of the flare or vent system depends on the hazards assessment for the specific installation.
Cianella, Roberto (Secretariat of the Committee for the Safety of Offshore Operations) | Ferrari, Marco (University of Bologna) | Macini, Paolo (University of Bologna) | Mesini, Ezio (University of Bologna & Committee for the Safety of Offshore Operations)
Currently, in the European Union (EU) law, the Directive 2013/30/EU concerning the safety of offshore operations in the Oil and Gas industry is in force. The European Commission, by means of this legislative instrument, fixed the minimum safety standards for the prospection, research and production of hydrocarbons in offshore environments. In 2015, thanks to the transposition of this Directive, the Italian government adapted to the European legislative framework in terms of safety of offshore Oil and Gas activities.
The main innovative aspect introduced in the Italian transposition Decree is the institution, by governmental appointment, of the Committee for the Safety of Offshore Operations (CSOO). With the aim of prevent relevant accidents in offshore Oil and Gas operations, the Committee, on one hand performs the functions of Competent Authority with powers of regulation, supervision and control, and on the other hand it is completely independent from the function of offshore license issue.
By transposing the Directive 2013/30/EU, it was possible to define the strategy for the control of the safety of offshore Oil and Gas infrastructures, providing the obligation for Operators to draw up a Report on Major Hazards (RoMH), which must be submitted to the CSOO. Aim of this report is to describe the technical peculiarities and the relevant performances of offshore installations in terms of health, safety and environment. In addition, to develop a detailed risk assessment, Operators are required to produce specific documentation such as the corporate major accidents prevention policy, the safety and environmental management system, the scheme of independent verification and the internal emergency response plan. To ensure that the safety and environmental critical elements identified in the risk assessment are adequate and the program for their monitoring is suitable, up-to-date and enforced, the figure of the Independent Verifier is introduced. Regardless of the verification carried out by this third party, the responsibility for the correct functioning of the systems undergoing verification is always traceable to the Operator. Finally, the task of defining and implementing processes and procedures for the evaluation of the RoMH and the relating documentation is entrusted to the CSOO.
Aim of this novel regulatory tool is to increase the safety level of offshore operations, by integrating the pre-existing legislative framework on the safety and protection of the sea from pollution, which in Italy has so far guaranteed the achievement of high safety levels for workers and the environment. Thanks to a meticulous control activity carried out by the technical Offices of the Italian Ministry of Economic Development, it was possible to achieve this goal. The evaluation, performed by means of a public consultation (started in September 2018 and closed at the end of December 2018), is assessing whether the Offshore Safety Directive, as implemented by Member States, has achieved the objective to ensure safe operations.
Finally, the paper highlights the major discussion points that should be considered in assessing the common experiences of European Competent Authorities.
Drilling operations are faced with conditions of subsurface uncertainty with unexpected drilling hazard potential. Operation is done in 24 hours a day continuously, until drilling is declared complete. The consequence of this work environment is the potential for high work accident, one of which is caused by situational conditions in the field that allow the communication limitations in clear and detailed.
Such conditions may include high-noise working conditions, limited visibility due to weather hazards (rain, fog, dark / night), and sour gas exposure. In this condition, often verbal communication is followed by non verbal communication, either in the form of the use of horns (morse), flag raising (semaphore) and limb movements. Non-verbal communication will be more urgent if the drilling operation conditions in emergency conditions, such as the occurrence of kick, blowout and exposure to sour gases. Non-verbal communication occasionally used in any drilling site does not have standardization, thus increasing the potential for communication errors.
Methods Non-verbal instructions intended in this paper is a sign language that serves as a medium for delivering work orders (instructions). This non verbal instruction uses one limb, represented by at least 2 limb movements in at least 2 stages of movement, to interpret a command or work instruction. If less than 2 movements or less than 1 stage of movement, then the movement of the body may have meaning, but can not be implemented because the instructions are not complete
With the invention, paper and efforts of this standardization, the communication process and the delivery of orders in both normal and emergency conditions at the drilling sites can be carried out in a structured, standardized, clear, detailed and widely applicable manner. The instruction method in the form of non-verbal codes is named: NS Blind Code Drilling, which has been registered since December 2014 to the Directorate General of Intellectual Property Rights and is in process related to the patent application.
The objective of this paper is to discuss safety philosophy underlying MPD operations and address potential risks involved and consequences for drilling assets during MPD deployment on a Deepwater Drilling MODU. HSE and Risk Considerations for Deepwater MPD projects will be outlined. This paper will also address rig configuration challenges and propose considerations for standardizing MPD Equipment for Surface Back Pressure (SBP), Pressurized Mud Cap Drilling (PMCD) and Floating Mud Cap Drilling (FMCD) Operations.
Diniz Brandão Rocha, Leandro (Ocyan) | de Almeida Campos, José Eugênio (Ocyan) | Venâncio Xavier, Cristiano (Ocyan) | Visser, Thijs (Ocyan) | Freitas, Felipe (Stress Engineering) | Stahl, Matt (Stress Engineering) | Cruse, Greg (Oil States Industries)
This paper presents a case study of how a drilling contractor handled the implementation of Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD) equipment on 4 (four) drilling rigs, with focus on the impact on Well Control equipment and emergency disconnect while performing FMCD (Floating Mud Cap Drilling). The paper considers the effects of the rapid inflow of seawater from the bottom of the riser (water rush-in) during a possible emergency disconnect. Additionally, this paper discusses concerns about the subsea equipment when the drilling fluid level is close to the subsea BOP stack or below the seabed. Such scenarios can expose the drilling riser, riser adaptor, flexible joint, BOP annular preventer, BOP seals and gaskets to an inward-acting pressure differential. Restrictions that this inward-acting differential pressure may impose on the conventional equipment currently aboard the drilling units were taken into consideration to determine the feasibility of FMCD operations. This paper highlights the non-conventional considerations as well as challenges associated with this operation for the offshore drilling industry. Those challenges have also motivated technology innovation such as a reduced-friction, next-generation subsea flexible joint, which will operate equally in conventional or MPD conditions.
A pilot of cryogenic distillation technology is designed and installed for separation of the high CO2 concentration of feed up to 80 mol % from natural gas. However, the main concern was the dry ice formation during depressurization or blowdown might cause the pipeline and equipment blockage and consequently resulting in safety issues.
A dynamics simulation and modeling were conducted using commercialize software to determine the settle out temperature during the blowdown especially emergency condition. The investigations were focused on the high operating pressure and low operating temperature with a high CO2 composition which is closer to transient condition and solid region. Then, more comprehensive modeling was conducted by incorporating the equipment and piping design data including the sizing of relieve valves (RVs) and blowdown valves (BDVs). The accuracy of information is very crucial to obtain more reliable results.
It was observed that at high operating pressure, (50 to 75 barg) and low operating temperature,(-58 to 15 °C) the settle out temperature due Joule-Thomson (JT) effect were −58 °C and −92 °C for 60% and 80% CO2 concentration, respectively. Based on the phase diagram, in this condition, the CO2 will be under a solid region. As a result, the Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) of −100 °C was selected for equipment and pipelines design to avoid material brittle-fracture. Few mitigations measure were designed and installed to avoid the CO2 solidification. The BDVs were installed at the warmer area to minimize the JT effect leading to lower operating temperature than CO2 solidification temperature resulting to potential equipment blockage. The electrical heat tracings were installed at the outlet flange and outlet line of RVs and BDVs to maintain fluid temperature above CO2 solidification limit. This is to prevent CO2 solid from attaching to the pipe wall and build up in the piping in the event of relief. Another mitigation was by installing the outlet line with sloped toward vent header and free from instrument probe or sensor to prevent CO2 solid from build up at piping dead leg section. As a result, no sign of CO2 solid found in the sections that equipped with mitigations measure during experiments.
An inherently safer design of equipment and pipelines are very crucial especially for high CO2 concentration, high operating pressure and low operating temperature with the appropriate mitigations to avoid catastrophic failure.
Workover operations with conventional workover rigs have an enormous impact on the site, adding strain to operational and production targets. Alternative approaches to optimize Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) replacements were evaluated and a Hydraulic Workover Unit (HWU) was selected as delivering the most advantageous outcome for the field to expedite the workovers efficiently and cost effectively. The HWU is more than capable to overcome any challenges and perform the replacement of failed ESP's, yet at the same time is a more compact & mobile unit than a traditional workover rig resulting in a much reduced impact on the wellsite. Several major benefits are gained including; avoidance of disruption to nearby wells, faster well turn-around, reduced cost, and ultimately an increased production avails. The size and scale of conventional workover rig and well spacing require the candidate well and other nearby wells to remove flowlines and instrumentation to create enough space for the rig and ancillary equipment. One of the primary design features of a standard HWU is the high level of accessibility in tight spaces allowing the unit to be assembled in small multiple individual components. This can be very time consuming so the challenge was to benefit from the superior accessibility but also to minimize the rig time for a more efficient process. To achieve this, a specialized fit for purpose HWU with the modular construction packaged into minimal components allowing for a swift rig up and efficient deployment of the unit. This HWU remains highly accessible and can replace the failed ESP without disturbing the installed production flowline infrastructure and instrumentation.
The HWU has been a key technology enabler transforming the status quo to improve the optimization of resources and reduce operational costs. During the project of 8 pilot wells, the average workover cost reduction was calculated at 61% per well. The improvement in operational efficiency benefited from an overall 69% faster site and well preparation duration with a 13% reduction in rig time. The magnitude of these improvements in efficiency, cost avoidance and the unlocking of earlier production availability is a game changer for ESP replacement operations. The HWU equipped with comprehensive capabilities has proven itself as a viable alternative to conventional workover rigs to replace failed ESP's. The design enhancements of the pre-assembled modular construction for the HWU minimizes the hazardous and labor-intensive assembly onsite, increasing the safety environment for the operational personnel.
Despite recent bad press following the flight disruption at London’s Gatwick Airport, unmanned aerial platforms, or drones as they are more commonly called, have a vital role to play in industry. The use of drones in the oil and gas industry is growing, and the technology is ready to take off in a big way. It offers benefits to oil and gas operations in a numerous ways—safe and efficient maintenance and inspections among them—but the data that the technology provides is transforming the industry. Safety First One of the more significant benefits of drones in the field to date has been their ability to improve safety in the field. As tools used to support and enhance emergency response and recovery, drones can provide live situational awareness during fires, spills, and other emergencies.
""A challenge only becomes an obstacle when you bow to it — Ray A. Davis". The development of heavy oil resources at North Kuwait Fields is an important strategic project for Kuwait Oil Company (KOC). With the target of reaching 4 million barrels per day (MBPD) production capacity by the year 2020, KOC is expected to produce 900,000 BPD of heavy oil by the year 2020. However, while cruising towards this ambitious target, KOC is also facing some unique HSE challenges - risk of exposure to high concentration of Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) especially in the Heavy Oil Fields. The objective of this paper is to present KOC's strategies in the management of H2S in heavy oil drilling and processing activities.
Various controls including access control, mandatory H2S Awareness and Escape training courses for personnel, provision of fixed and portable H2S detectors, facility alarms, emergency planning, PPEs including respiratory protective equipment, work permits etc. are strictly implemented across the Facilities. All personnel working in heavy oil Facilities are trained for emergency to ensure that they react to protect themselves (and others) in the event of an H2S release incident.
This paper introduces some practical strategies adopted in KOC to handle H2S hazards, which have contributed in effective management of the associated risks in "sour gas handling in heavy oil drilling and process plants". It is expected that this paper will initiate further consideration and new measures/ways to enhance H2S risk management and thereby significantly reduce the occurrence of losses to personnel, environment, asset and reputation. From our experience, we feel that the effectiveness of the overall H2S risk management can be ensured by establishing a structured system consisting of proper identification of the hazards, assessment of risk, identification of control measures to contain the risks at ALARP level and dissemination of information amongst the workforce.