|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Treatment evaluation leads to problem identification and to continuously improved treatments. The prime source of information on which to build an evaluation are the acid treatment report and the pressure and rate data during injection and falloff. Proper execution, quality control, and record keeping are prerequisites to the task of accurate evaluation. Evaluation of unsatisfactory treatments is essential to recommending changes in chemicals and/or treating techniques and procedures that will provide the best treatment for acidizing wells in the future. The most important measure of the treatment is the productivity of the well after treatment.
The single well chemical tracer (SWCT) test can be used to evaluate an Improved oil recovery (IOR) process quickly and inexpensively. The one-spot procedure takes advantage of the nondestructive nature of the SWCT method. The single-well (one-spot) pilot is carried out in three steps. First, Sor for the target interval is measured (see Residual oil evaluation using single well chemical tracer test. Then an appropriate volume of the IOR fluid is injected into the test interval and pushed away from the well with water.
You've decided that your well is a good candidate for acidizing, assessed the formation, designed the treatment, prepared the well and equipment, so now you're ready to conduct the treatment. This page describes both the process and things you should be doing during and immediately after the treatment. The main acid job should be circulated in place with HCl acid placed across the formation before the packer is set or before the bypass valve is closed. All perforations should be covered by acid before injection starts. Injection should start at a predetermined injection rate and the pressure observed to determine the condition of the wellbore.
The single-well chemical tracer (SWCT) test is an in-situ method for measuring fluid saturations in reservoirs. Most often, residual oil saturation is measured; less frequently, connate water saturation (Swc) is the objective. Either saturation is measured where one phase effectively is stationary in the pore space (i.e., is at residual saturation) and the other phase can flow to the wellbore. Recently, the SWCT method has been extended to measure oil/water fractional flow at measured fluid saturations in situations in which both oil and water phases are mobile. The SWCT test is used primarily to quantify the target oil saturation before initiating improved oil recovery (IOR) operations, to measure the effectiveness of IOR agents in a single well pilot and to assess a field for bypassed oil targets.
Ray (Zhenhua) Rui is a research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His research interests include unconventional and conventional resource assessment and development, techno-economic analysis, technology-development evaluation, project evaluation, sustainable development and evaluation, industry best-practice development, and energy data analytics. He has published more than 60 journal papers. He is a member of the United Nations Expert Group on Resource Management and co-project leader of the United Nations Petroleum Work Group. He currently serves as an SPE International Advisory Committee member for Projects, Facilities, and Construction (PFC). He also has served as SPE ATCE Conference PFC Specialty Coordinator and Chairperson, and Chairperson of the SPE International Technical Award PFC Committee. He has received the SPE Regional Technical Award, the SPE Regional Outstanding Young Member Service Award, and the SPE Outstanding Technical Editor Award. Mr. Rui previously was with Independent Project Analysis.
Abstract Traditional casing connection qualification programs provide confidence in performance, but at a high price. Manufacturer driven evaluations can be overly conservative in order to minimize development costs and allow the results to be applied to a wide range of applications. Evaluations by operators, either independent or in collaboration with manufacturers, can be customized to achieve the minimum amount of risk possible unique to design. Either option may limit the application of the data and can be costly to supplement. Utilizing prior data to compliment an evaluation will reduce scope, minimizing time and cost, but little formal guidance exists as to how to do this. Workgroups, such as the Product Line Evaluation (PLE) for Thermal Well Connections have created extensive guidance as to how to apply previous work to connection families, yet this remains confidential to the work group. Standards, such as ISO/PAS 12835 formally address the use of previous data in an evaluation, but do not offer guidance as to how to apply it. EVRAZ NA has experience working with clients to develop programs that combine existing data with benchtop/FEA based testing to minimize cost and risk. In this paper, examples of these evaluations will be discussed with the techniques used. This will demonstrate how confidence was built while not only saving time, but critically, cost to achieve an acceptable level of risk.
Digitalization and automation have delivered step changes not only in technology, but also to process in the oilfield industry. Instead of making small incremental shifts in well construction operations, our industry can now make disruptive shifts for tangible performance gains in efficiency, safety, and well integrity. Indeed, many of those changes will enable fully automated drilling and are either in their nascent stages or already here. Operators and service companies that intend to remain competitive in this context must accelerate their own digital transformations going forward. Digitalization and automation make existing processes or technologies more efficient and less error prone.
Because of these issues, it was anticipated that the total liquid load entering the demister would prove to be excessive, especially at the higher end of the gas flow rate envelope for which the vessel was designed. At these conditions, the demister was expected to be overloaded, which would explain the high levels of liquid carry-over observed by operations. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made to build a new gas scrubber for the same process conditions. Figure 1 shows the basic differences between the final equipment configuration in the original design and a newly designed gas scrubber The letters a, b, c, and d in the figure correspond to the recommendations that follow.
Production from oil fields can be increased by enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Among several other EOR methods, the injection of chemicals has been studied since the 1970s. In that time, anionic polyacrylamides (PAM) have proven to be efficient viscosifiers for moderate field conditions to reduce mobility of the displacement fluid, thus increasing reservoir sweep efficiency. Surfactants mobilize oil that is trapped in formation rock pores by lowering the oil/water interfacial tension. Polymer flooding is now considered an established technology, which is applied on a commercial scale in several countries.