The objective of this paper is to explore the benefits of using the Interactive Epoch-Era Analysis (IEEA) methodology for evaluating architectural changes in a trade space exploration study. In this paper a subsea tieback offshore Brazil will be used as reference case to investigate this premise from a full field development perspective.
An automated concept exploration tool is employed. It applies meta-heuristics to generate different offshore facilities concepts with varying building blocks. The interaction between reservoir behavior and facilities design is accounted for, meaning pressure and temperature losses throughout the system are taken into account in each concept differently. These concepts are ranked in terms of economic performance indicators (NPV, IRR, etc.), and each run with a given set of boundary conditions covers what is called an Epoch. This process is iterated for the whole life of field with a set of different boundary conditions, such as commercial aspects ($/bbl, $/MMBtu, market demand) and/or technological maturity aspects (TRL, novel technological concepts), generating what is called an Era. The whole data set is then evaluated in an interactive platform thru the Humans-In-the-Loop (HIL) process.
Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is being employed successfully in other engineering fields outside the O&G context such as the aerospace and automotive industries. While digital tools have been identified as a potential key contributor to the future of O&G performance enhancement and further cost reductions, that is yet to be shown. This work intends to provide backing for that argument in one of the potential applications during early concept exploration phases by showing that quick high value assessments following an MBSE approach may be carried out, once significant effort has been put into proper development, verification and validation (V&V) of such digital tools.
While integrated models for asset development have long been a subject of interest for O&G operators, the application of Systems Engineering concepts to it has not yet been thoroughly explored. Systems Engineering provides a rigorous and proven method of dealing with complex systems that is highly applicable to offshore field developments. MBSE is the current State of the Art for capital intensive projects such as space exploration spacecrafts and rovers. Learning from these successful use cases and applying these methodologies in the development of digital technologies may provide a new set of tools in the belt of O&G operators Facilities Engineers and alike. The study case presented shows MBSE’s capability of capturing intrinsic non-linearities and specificities of each O&G field/location while ensuring project wide functional requirements are successfully met.
It is well known that geophysics, particularly the
Purewal, Satinder (Imperial College) | Juárez Toquero, Fidel (National Hydrocarbons Commission of Mexico) | Simón Burgos, Eduardo (National Hydrocarbons Commission of Mexico) | Meneses-Scherrer, Eduardo J. (National Hydrocarbons Commission of Mexico) | Arellano Sánchez, Elaine A. (National Hydrocarbons Commission of Mexico)
A Pilot project was initiated to classify Oil and Gas projects in 19 Blocks in Mexico using the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) which has a unique 3-dimensional evaluation structure with three axes: Economics, Environment and Social viability (E axis), Project Feasibility (F axis) and Geological Knowledge (G axis). The main focus was to capture the environmental and social impact on project classification and resources categorization.
The Pilot project was coordinated by the National Hydrocarbons Commission (CNH) with integrated collaboration from the Energy Ministry (SENER), the Agency for Safety, Energy and Environment (ASEA), and the Petroleum Work Group of UNECE. SPE classification system (i.e. PRMS) has been mapped to UNFC. While PRMS covers oil and gas projects only, UNFC covers all resources e.g. oil and gas, minerals, renewables, nuclear, etc.
The E axis uniquely differentiates UNFC from PRMS by its granular capture of social and environmental issues. A systematic approach was adopted with focus on E and F axes for which a matrix and a decision tree (‘flow chart’) were created for an efficient classification of the hydrocarbon volumes. For the G axis, the volume ranges provided by the project operators were considered to be valid. In the selected 19 blocks, there were 75 projects identified. These were located offshore, onshore and included conventional and unconventional projects with varying degrees of environmental and social issues.
This is the first known exercise using UNFC for integrating social and environmental issues into oil and gas projects for hydrocarbon volumes classification and categorization anywhere globally. The outcome shows the differences between the PRMS and UNFC due to social and environmental conditions. Using UNFC for classification and categorization of all energy sources of a country, a potential tool can be created for making energy policy decisions. This may also assist in meeting Sustainable Development Goals- 2030 adopted by most countries including the UN and The World Bank.
Classification using UNFC assists in identifying the key social and environmental drivers which may be impediments to moving the oil and gas volumes categorizations higher up the value chain. Added granularity in the classifications incorporating environmental and social considerations will assist project financial investment decision making through comparative assessment of objectives and priorities of national, regional and local stakeholders. To the authors’ knowledge, this is a unique Pilot project with significant value-add outcomes which can be replicated in other countries.
Vorobev, Vladimir (Gazpromneft-GEO, LLC) | Safarov, Ildar (Gazpromneft-GEO, LLC) | Mostovoy, Pavel (Gazpromneft Science & Technology Centre, LLC) | Shakirzyanov, Lenar (Gazpromneft-GEO, LLC) | Fagereva, Veronika (Gazpromneft Science & Technology Centre, LLC)
Eastern Siberia is characterized by the extremely complex geological structure. The main factors include multiple faults, trappean and salt tectonics, the complex structure of the upper part of the section (0–1200 m) and its high-velocity characteristic (5000–6000 m/s), the high degree of rock transformation by secondary processes, low formation temperatures (10–30°C), the mixed fluid composition (gas, oil and water), and low net thicknesses (5–7 m) of productive layers. The fields of the region are among the most complex ones in the world according to the BP Company's statistics. New seismic and geologic model based on complex analyses of core, well logs, well tests, seismic and electromagnetic data allowed the Gazpromneft-GEO company to drill a series of successful wells.
Gazpromneft-GEO, LLC.holds three oil and gas exploration and production licenses within the Ignyalinsky, Vakunaisky and Tympuchikansky (Chona field) subsurface blocks (Russia, Eastern Siberia, Irkutsk Region and Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)). The area of the blocks is 6,855 sq.km, 3,050 sq.km of which are covered by the 3D seismic and high-density electric prospecting (
The work was carried out within the frames of scientific research and field works at the Gazpromneft-GEO, LLC. fields in Eastern Siberia. The high-density full-azimuth ground-based seismic using the UniQ technology was performed in Russia for the first time. The electric exploration with the near-field time-domain electromagnetic method was carried out along the same lines for the first time in Russia as well. This allowed to form the high-density cube of geoelectric properties. Model based on the wells (Facies model, Petrophysics model) and field geophysical data (3D seismic survey, 3D electric exploration, gravimetric survey, magnetic survey) complexation was made. The use of the approach allows to reduce the number of wells required for exploration of fields by 40%.
As data computing and big data driven analytics become more prevalent in a number of spatial industries, there is increasing need to quantify and communicate uncertainty with those data and resulting spatial analytical products. This has direct implication in oil & gas exploration and development where big data and data analytics continue to expand uses and applications of spatial and spatio-temporal data in the industry without providing for effective communication of spatial uncertainty. The result is that communications and inferences made using spatial data visuals lack crucial information about uncertainty and thus present a barrier to accurate and efficient decision making. With increasing cost awareness in oil & gas exploration and development, there is urgent need for methods and tools that help to objectively define and integrate uncertainty into business decisions.
To address this need, the Variable Grid Method (VGM) has been developed for simultaneous communication of both spatial patterns and trends and the uncertainty associated with data or their analyses. The VGM utilizes varying grid cell sizes to visually communicate and constrain the uncertainty, creating an integrated layer that can be used to visualize uncertainty associated with spatial, spatio-temporal data or data-driven products.
In this paper, we detail the VGM approach and demonstrate the utility of the VGM to intuitively quantify and provide cost-effective information about the relationship between uncertainty and spatial data. This allows trends of interest to be objectively investigated and target uncertainty criteria defined to drive optimal investment in improved subsurface definition. Examples are presented to show how the VGM can thus be used for efficient decision making in multiple applications including geological risk evaluation, as well as to optimize data acquisition in exploration and development.
Today, uncertainty, if it is provided at all, is generally communicated using multiple independent visuals, aggregated in final displays, or omitted altogether. The VGM provides a robust method for quantifying and representing uncertainty in spatial data analyses, offering key information about the analysis, but also associated risks, both of which are vital for making prudent business decisions in oil & gas exploration and development.
The Netherlands YEPP made a field trip to Total E&P Nederland's Zuidwal gas platform in the Waddenzee (a tidal area in the north of The Netherlands) in February 2004. Participants were given a tour of Total's gas treatment center in Harlingen, including a view of the control room that monitors all of Total's Netherlands operations. It was a pleasant and sunny winter day for most of the boat trip, and our hosts looked after us well. Lijs Groenendaal, SPE section board member and one of our Total hosts, gave a comprehensive talk about Zuidwal's history and development. In 1969, Elf Petroland B.V. was granted an exploration license for the Zuidwal area.
Young engineers and professionals from the Saudi Aramco E&P business line organized a visit in May for undergraduate students from King Fahd U. of Petroleum and Minerals to Saudi Aramco's Visualization Center. The students were first introduced to the Exploration and Petroleum Engineering Center (Expec) and its functions. The introduction was followed by a short video titled "Expec, Center of Innovation." The students were then guided to the Visualization Center, where engineers Khalid Zamil, Mubarak Dossary, and Bader Harbi welcomed the visitors and illustrated to them how visualization applications are developed and used in Saudi Aramco. The objective of the visit was to expose the students to advanced technologies used in the E&P business and motivate them to consider joining E&P businesses after graduation.
Three young professionals shared advice for career and personal advancement as well as information about their involvement in and growth through SPE and other activities in a special panel session at the 2006 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Attendees at the "Young Professionals: Tips, Advice, and Networking" event also learned about the importance of mentoring and were given the opportunity to meet with other professionals and company management. Moderated by Josh Etkind, Reservoir Engineer–Surveillance for Shell E&P, the panel also included Gillian King, Product Line Champion, Sand Control Systems for Weatherford Intl. Discussing the help of mentors in his career, Daniels said he "jumped into the deep end" early in his career and he was glad there was a lifeguard on duty. "Young professionals have a responsibility to seek out people to learn as much as they can," he said.
Talos Energy made a big splash in 2015 when it won two of the fourteen blocks offered in Mexico's inaugural Round 1 lease sale. The company and its partners drilled the Zama-1 exploration well in July 2017, the first well drilled offshore by the private sector in Mexico's history, and later announced a massive discovery with over a billion barrels of oil in place. Now the company is moving forward to reach final investment decision and bring the field on line by the early 2020s. Outside of Mexico, Talos has reshaped its portfolio through its recent merger with Stone Energy, becoming public in the process. Following the transaction, the company now operates several US Gulf of Mexico facilities as well as subsea tie-backs.
In this paper, the approach to multivariate static and dynamic modeling is considered on the example of an offshore field discovered in 2017. Based on the limited volume of information, the quantitative and qualitative description of uncertainties included further in the 3D modeling is made. This model is proposed to be used as a tool for prompt decision making when implementing a fast-track project with limited time between exploration and pre-FEED stages.