The FPSO Kaombo Norte came on stream on July 27 2018, offshore Angola. When both its FPSOs will be at plateau, the biggest deep offshore project in Angola will account for 10% of the country's production. Kaombo reserves are spread over an 800-square-kilometer area. The development stands out for its subsea network size with more than 270 kilometers of pipeline on the seabed between 1500-2000 m water depth, including subsea production wells more than 25 km away from the production facility. Producing complex fluids within such a challenging environment required demanding thermal performance of the overall subsea asset with both the problematics of steady-state arrival temperature and cooldown. To do so, the transient thermal signature of every subsea component has been evaluated and correlated into a dynamic flow simulation to verify the integrity and therefore, safety of the system.
A unique design of subsea equipment aims to cover a large range of reservoir conditions. In order to tackle both risks of wax deposit during production and hydrates plug during restart, the whole system was designed to have a very low U-value and stringent cooldown requirements. A dedicated focus on having an extremely low U-value for the Pipe-in-Pipe (PiP) system enables to improve the global thermal performance. The accurate thermal performance predictions from computer modelling were firstly validated during the engineering phase with a full scale test. Eventually an in-situ thermal test was performed a few days before the first-oil to assess the as-built performance of the full subsea network. A well prepared procedure allowed to characterize precisely the subsea system U-value in addition to evaluate the cooldown time of critical components, after installation. The error band was properly assessed to take into account the difficulties of performing such remote measurements from an FPSO.
The different elements of the qualification procedure were successful, validating the demanding thermal requirement of the subsea system. The validation of the thermal performance of the flowline was fully achieved. Detailed analysis of the test results was performed in order to define precisely the U-value in operations. The as-built performance verification, including all elements of the complex subsea network, allowed to validate the optimized operating envelopes of the production system.
A detailed qualification process was conducted in order to fulfill one of the most challenging thermal requirements for a subsea development. Thanks to the precise prediction of the flowline insulation performance, the different reservoir conditions are safely handled. The operating envelope of the production system is finally optimized with the confidence from as-built performances confirmation.
Significant advancements in physics-based model development, software workflow practices, multi-core processing and cost-effective cloud computing has enabled the adoption of high fidelity, three-dimensional (3D) modeling such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), finite element analysis (FEA), and other first principles-based analyses into normal engineering design practices. Historically, integration of these tools into the standard engineering workflow was challenging due to the excessively long turnaround times to deliver any results.
A shut-in subsea flowline is believed to be the source of the spill on Husky Energy’s SeaRose FPSO offshore Newfoundland and Labrador. The spill is believed to be the largest in the history of the Canadian province. The deal gives Equinor exploration parcels in the prolific Jeanne d’Arc Basin, near its existing discoveries offshore Newfoundland and Labrador.
While the floating liquefied-natural-gas (FLNG) option initially looked promising, high capital expenditure and very high operational expense (OPEX) have limited its potential application, with four potential FLNG projects being canceled in Australasia in the last 2 years. This paper describes a split-process FLNG design where primary production and gas-treatment functions are provided on a host platform while liquefaction occurs on a separate vessel.
Although the commissioning of a floating production system (FPS) generally takes place between the “mechanical completion” and “first oil” stages, commissioning activities begin long before then. LLOG Exploration’s Delta House floating production system (FPS) looms large over Kiewit Offshore Services’ fabrication yard in Ingleside, Texas.
The SPE Gulf Coast Section’s Project, Facilities, and Construction study group is hosting a series of lectures, “What Have We Learned About Host Selection in Deepwater GOM After 20 Years of Being Off the Shelf? The development of compact topside processing plants for floating, production, storage and offloading (FPSO) vessels is a growing industry trend that can reduce operating and capital expenditures over the life of the vessel, a researcher and scientist said recently. Expenditures for floating production systems are expected to more than double in the next five years. This growth is driven by multiple factors. Investments in floating production systems are expected to increase sharply over the next five years, driven by a surge in installations.
Megaprojects have come to define many of the world’s new resource projects but they are also a testament to the awesome engineering capabilities of the oil and gas industry. Find out who took home this year’s honors. Shell and SBM Offshore won recognition for their Gulf of Mexico Stones field development. The OTC Distinguished Achievement Award will be presented during a luncheon on 1 May at the Offshore Technology Conference in Houston. Gene Kouba was recognized with the Projects, Facilities and Construction award during ATCE.
The oilfield services sector showed steady revenue growth in 2018 thanks, in part, to increased project sanctioning. With the oil price falling $20 in the past 2 months, however, the future may be murkier than expected. A report from Rystad Energy shows a near-term boost in the global floating production market, with more than 30 new FPSO projects possibly reaching sanction from 2019 to 2021. As rig counts continue to go up in the region, the Permian water disposal market is expected to see growth through 2021 with a possible record-high 8.4 billion bbl next year.
With events such as the BP Macondo blowout in the US Gulf of Mexico (2010) and the Pemex Ayatsil-C platform accident (June), the safety risks inherent in oil and gas projects are evident. Although the commissioning of a floating production system (FPS) generally takes place between the “mechanical completion” and “first oil” stages, commissioning activities begin long before then. LLOG Exploration’s Delta House floating production system (FPS) looms large over Kiewit Offshore Services’ fabrication yard in Ingleside, Texas. The ultimate success of a deepwater project depends on phases from early concept selection, design, construction, commissioning, and startup to operation. However, the boundaries and transfer of responsibilities may not be sharply demarcated between phases.
Lessons Learned as World's First Cell Spar Laid to Rest After 10 years, the world’s first cell spar, Anadarko’s Red Hawk, was decommissioned. It remained the only cell spar fabricated and again made history as the deepest floating production unit ever decommissioned in the GOM. For Anadarko, the secret of the “design one, build many” approach to offshore production facilities is to control its enthusiasm for change. The company’s experience with eight operated spars shows the benefits gained with this approach.