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Green fields today mostly can be regarded as marginal fields and successfully developed. It covers the complete assessment of the oil and gas recovery potential from reservoir structure and formation evaluation, oil and gas reserve mapping, their uncertainties and risks management, feasible reservoir fluid depletion approaches, and to the construction of integrated production systems for cost effective development of the green fields. Depth conversion of time interpretations is a basic skill set for interpreters. There is no single methodology that is optimal for all cases. Next, appropriate depth methods will be presented. Depth imaging should be considered an integral component of interpretation. If the results derived from depth imaging are intended to mitigate risk, the interpreter must actively guide the process.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Bowleven has started drilling operations at the Moambe exploration well on the Bomono permit in Cameroon. Moambe is the second well in a two-well program, approximately 2 km east of the first well, Zingana. It targets a previously undrilled Paleocene Tertiary three-way dip fault block containing multiple sands and will be drilled to an estimated 1620 m in measured depth. Both wells will be logged. Bowleven is the operator and holds 100% interest. Asia Pacific Murphy Oil discovered gas at its Permai exploration well in deepwater Block H in the South China Sea offshore Malaysia.
You have access to this full article to experience the outstanding content available to SPE members and JPT subscribers. To ensure continued access to JPT's content, please Sign In, JOIN SPE, or Subscribe to JPT In tectonically influenced regions, potential hydrocarbon traps are subject to complex states of stress. The complete paper demonstrates that such complex stress states will affect well completions and hydraulic fracturing directly in a multitude of ways but that, often, some of the more influential consequences are severe casing failures, production-liner restrictions, and complex-fracture-initiation scenarios. Unconventional-resource development in such environments requires that a renewed focus be made in all phases of well design and construction. Distinguishing clearly between the two separate issues of well-integrity loss and reservoir-accessibility loss is critical when the presence of casing deformation or failure is considered.
IHS Markit released its latest CementIQ report in the wake of OPEC discussions and the effects of coronavirus (COVID-19) on the global economy, which have combined to leave the oil market in an historic state of turmoil. Even before this upheaval, service companies were preparing for a "down" 2020 and Schlumberger and Halliburton made headlines when they announced a 50% and 25% reduction in fracing hydraulic horsepower (HHP), respectively, to address large amounts of generalized oversupply in the US market. While these cuts seemed drastic at the time, no one could possibly have foreseen that the situation would change to the point where we are now projecting a drop of 66% in total US spuds from Q1 to Q4 2020. Fracing tends to overshadow cementing in terms of attention, owing to the former's cost and equipment intensity, so you won't hear many such public announcements from service companies for the latter. Nevertheless, our latest research shows that the situation in the cementing market is just as dire as that in the fracing market (Figure 1).
The objective of this paper is to show a methodology that generates a secondary guide for propagating fracture densities as input to a DFN (Discrete Fracture Network). Our goal is to provide a new idea for geomodelers who deal with complex fractured fields, and do not have enough information to build robust models for exploration and simulation.
The secondary guide was developed to help geomodelers populate fracture properties on a reservoir model. The seismic data was of low quality, making it difficult to obtain good seismic attributes. Therefore, a guide was created that incorporated on the same attribute, information about the geocellular grid deformation, the distance from the fault planes, and the fault's displacement. All of the information used to generate the secondary guide was created from the structural model (interpolated surfaces -faults and horizons - perfectly sealed) and geocellular grid.
It is also important to know that, depending on the type of deformation defined for the model, deformation results can vary. Once the three properties were calculated and placed in the same domain (the geological grid), they were rescaled. After that, they were merged in a new property according to the geomodeler's criteria.
The quality of the results relied on the seismic interpretation of faults and horizons, so in order to generate a good guide, it was important to obtain the most accurate representation of the structural model. The values of the new output property varied as a function of the distance from the faults, but also as a function of the fault displacements, and the presence of the deformed rock. This allowed its correlation with the fracture density through use of a statistical function. The secondary guide did not include other fracture controllers, such as the probability of fractures, which was also controlled by the geomechanical parameters. That would be another property to be weighted in the process.
The process was designed and applied to a real case. The methodology enabled the geomodeler to distribute fracture densities and their properties without the use of seismic attributes. The workflow is applicable to any kind of fractured reservoir and can be used anywhere, from exploration to production.