Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. A fracture treatment, common where high fracture flow conductivity is needed. Very high pressures and very high proppant loadings are applied near the end of a fracture treatment where the tip of the fracture has stopped growing due to bridging of proppant at the fracture dip because of dehydration (frac fluid leakoff).
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. In the context of fracturing, HSP stands for high strength proppant. In the context of a lift, HSP stands for hydraulic submersible pump.
The most important data for designing a fracture treatment are the in-situ stress profile, formation permeability, fluid-loss characteristics, total fluid volume pumped, propping agent type and amount, pad volume, fracture-fluid viscosity, injection rate, and formation modulus. It is very important to quantify the in-situ stress profile and the permeability profile of the zone to be stimulated, plus the layers of rock above and below the target zone that will influence fracture height growth. There is a structured method that should be followed to design, optimize, execute, evaluate, and reoptimize the fracture treatments in any reservoir. The first step is always the construction of a complete and accurate data set. Table 1 lists the sources for the data required to run fracture propagation and reservoir models.
Designing an acid-fracturing treatment is similar to designing a fracturing treatment with a propping agent. Williams, et al. presents a thorough explanation of the fundamentals concerning acid fracturing. The main difference between acid fracturing and proppant fracturing is the way fracture conductivity is created. In proppant fracturing, a propping agent is used to prop open the fracture after the treatment is completed. In acid fracturing, acid is used to "etch" channels in the rock that comprise the walls of the fracture.