Blockchain refers to a type of data structure that enables identifying and tracking transactions digitally and sharing this information across a distributed network of computers, creating in a sense a distributed trust network. The distributed ledger technology offered by blockchain provides a transparent and secure means for tracking the ownership and transfer of assets. While blockchain itself was made popular by the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, the explosion of interest in blockchain in Oil & Gas started in 2017. According to several analysts, including Gartner, the high level of interest in blockchain does not yet indicate that everyone understands it well, or that there are many real projects that have turned the promise into reality. Indeed, in most blockchain conferences (which have been numerous since 2017), much time is spent "demystifying" the concept.
The distributed ledger technology offered by blockchain provides a transparent and secure means for tracking the ownership and transfer of assets. While blockchain itself was made popular by the Bitcoin cryptocurrency, the explosion of interest in blockchain in Oil & Gas started in 2017. According to several analysts, including Gartner, the high level of interest in blockchain does not yet indicate that everyone understands it well, or that there are many real projects that have turned the promise into reality. Indeed, in most blockchain conferences (which have been numerous since 2017), much time is spent "demystifying" the concept. For most people, blockchain is still synonymous with Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.
The Tyumen State Oil & Gas University SPE Student Chapter IV International Oil & Gas Conference (IOGC) "Up-to-Date Technologies for Western Siberia Fuel-Energy Complex" was held in THE West Siberian Innovation Center of Oil and Gas, Tyumen, Russia, and brought together students and young professionals from all over Russia and Belarus. IOGC 2010 featured technical sessions with approximately 34 papers on innovative technologies, case studies and best practices in E&P. TNK-BP and Schlumberger were Gold sponsors of the conference. IOGC is conducted for the 4th time since 2007 and every year the number of participants grows. This year, the opening ceremony was performed together with our partner non-for-profit organization "Mir Nauki".
Ma, Z. (The University of Texas at Austin) | Vajargah, A. Karimi (The University of Texas at Austin) | Chen, D. (The University of Texas at Austin) | van Oort, E. (The University of Texas at Austin) | May, R. (GE-Baker Hughes) | MacPherson, J. D. (GE-Baker Hughes) | Becker, G. (GE-Baker Hughes) | Curry, D. (GE-Baker Hughes)
Non-aqueous drilling fluids (such as synthetic-based mud) are frequently used to drill one or more sections of an oil/gas well to reduce drilling problems such as shale sloughing, wellbore stability, and stuck pipe. However, solubility of formation gas in such fluids makes early gas detection and thereby the well control process very challenging. This is of particular concern in deep offshore wells, in which large amount of gas can be dissolved in non-aqueous drilling fluids under high pressure and temperature conditions. The gas remains in solution until the bubble point is reached. Thereafter, a sudden release of gas at shallow depth can compromise wellbore and riser integrity, particularly when the gas has passed the blow out preventer installed at the seafloor. An advanced planning tool to simulate the transient multi-phase phenomena associated with gas kicks in non-aqueous drilling fluids is therefore highly desirable.
This paper presents a novel and comprehensive hydraulic model with associated calculation routines and software to simulate a gas kick in non-aqueous drilling fluids. A transient drift-flux approach based on conservation of mass and momentum was applied in association with appropriate algebraic closure equations and sophisticated friction and choke models. Advanced numerical schemes, where applied previously, have been modified to handle the mass transfer between the liquid (mud) and gas phases. In addition, PVT models have been included to investigate and predict the effect of gas solubility in various types of drilling fluids.
The calculation routines contained in a new software tool predict crucial parameters during well construction such as pit gain, gas break out location and void fraction, annular pressure profile, kick tolerance, choke opening, flow-out, standpipe and casing pressures. Simulation results generated using the tool are presented here for both water-based and synthetic-based muds to illustrate the impact of gas solubility on kick behavior. The tool can handle several other complexities which occur during a well control incident such as multiple influxes from one or several formations, dynamic well control (suitable for managed pressure drilling), automated choke control, sudden pump startup/shutdown, non-Newtonian drilling fluids, arbitrary wellbore path, lost circulation, etc.
Applying advanced numerical schemes associated with relevant PVT models and several types of boundary conditions makes the tool comprehensive, unique, robust, and efficient for well control analysis for a variety of complex drilling scenarios, particularly deepwater wells. As such, it has the potential to enhance well control operations and well design, thereby enhancing rig safety and reducing non-productive time and cost associated with well control-related events.
Bjørkevoll, Knut S. (SINTEF Petroleum Research/DrillWell) | Skogestad, Jan Ole (SINTEF Petroleum Research/DrillWell) | Frøyen, Johnny (SINTEF Petroleum Research/DrillWell) | Linga, Harald (SINTEF Petroleum Research/DrillWell)
Details of the interaction between natural gas and oil in drilling fluids currently not taken into account, will in extreme cases be significant for the safety of drilling and well control operations. The paper describes such effects, in particular time dependence (kinetics) and compositional PVT with dense phase included. The importance of validation and tuning of PVT calculations, even when using state-of-art tools, is demonstrated by integrating new methods in a well control simulator.
We consider sub-models for kinetics (time dependence of gas dissolution and boiling) and compositional PVT for the drilling fluid-natural gas mixture, and study different effects and assumptions numerically by integration in a well control simulator. Available laboratory data are used for model development and tuning of existing software. The dense phase may be important to consider in HPHT wells, where the conditions allow for the drilling fluid-gas mixture to exceed the critical point. This influences the gas absorption capability of the drilling fluid, as well as the density.
The paper illustrates the impact of kinetics and improved PVT calculations through a sensitivity analysis using realistic well and fluid data. Two specific base-oils, a refined mineral oil and a linear paraffin, are used in combination with methane gas. The simulations show how kinetic effects can be important in some cases, both for early interpretation of a kick and for the response seen at surface as gas approaches and enters topside equipment. Furthermore, it demonstrates that dense phase effects can be significant, and that even state-of-art PVT software requires tuning when used with new combinations of oil-base fluids and hydrocarbon gases. Although the effects discussed are small compared to safety margins for many wells, ignorance may cause drilling teams to run into severe risks without knowing in advance for other wells.
Combining advanced PVT models capable of representing dense phase behavior and a kinetics model with hydraulic flow modelling represents a leap forward in simulation of well control events. In addition, the importance of tuning adds valuable knowledge. These elements enable earlier detection and safer handling, thus increasing the safety on the rig.
Zhou, H. (SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering) | Fan, H. (SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering) | Wang, H. (No.2 Drilling Company of SINOPEC Zhongyuan Petroleum Engineering Ltd.) | Niu, X. (SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering) | Wang, G. (SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering)
Managed pressure drilling (MPD) technique can stop and remove a kick without shut-in procedure while keeping the bottomhole pressure relatively constant while a kick was detected. But the key for a successful kick removal operation depend on accurate, real-time knowledge of wellbore hydraulics. Therefore, the transient multiphase flow calculation for MPD kick control should be developed for obtaining high-precision hydraulics.
Firstly, a real-time multiphase hydrodynamic model for kick control of MPD was proposed, in which the gas solubility in drilling fluids is take into account. Because of the well head pressure need to adjust in real-time during MPD, therefore the influence caused by real-time adjusting of WHP for gas migration and phase change was take into account too. And as a consequence there are more boundary conditions and dynamic parameters of this model than the traditional multiphase model. Secondly, the finite difference method was used to solve the proposed model, and then a comprehensive solution procedure is proposed, in which the different boundary conditional mode of MPD is considered, based on which the numerical solution of kick control for different MPD mode can be obtained easily. Moreover, a series of system calculation software were developed to predicted pit gain, flow patterns, circulating pressures, gas top, bottomhole hydraulics and the related control parameters for control the kick while MPD.
The proposed model has been verified with experimental data collected from scientific experimental well of SINOPEC, there is an excellent match between the calculated and measured data and the calculation accuracy is higher than 95%. Furthermore, this calculation software has been used for analyzing the MPD kick control during drilling shale gas horizontal wells of SINOPEC, and it runs smoothly with convenient operation. Therefore it can be seen this system can be applied to provide more convenient fast and precise dynamic parameters monitoring for control kick while MPD.
This paper established a novel real-time multiphase hydrodynamic model and a systematic calculate software, which has been verified with experimental data and applied in shale gas field. Through the field application, the results show that it can provide more accurate prediction of wellbore multiphase flow parameters. Therefore it can be seen that this novel method can be applied for MPD kick control to provide more precise dynamic parameters for kick control while MPD.
Gas transient flow in a gas pipeline and gas tank is critical in flow assurance. Not only does leak detection require a delicate model to simulate the complicated yet dramatically changed phenomena, but gas-pipeline and gas-tank design in metering, gathering, and transportation systems demands an accurate analysis of gas transient flow, through which efficient, cost-effective operation can be achieved. Traditionally, there are two types of approaches used to investigate gas transient flow: One involves treating gas as ideal gas so that the ideal-gas law can be applied, and the other considers gas as real gas, allowing the gas-compressibility factor to come into play. Needless to say, the former method can result in an analytical solution to gas transient flow with a deviation from the real-gas performance, which is very crucial in daily operation. The latter approach requires a numerical method to solve the governing equation, leading to instability issues with a more-accurate result. Our literature review indicated that no study considering the effect of changing gas viscosity on the transient flow was available; therefore, this effect was included in our study. Our investigation showed that viscosity does have a significant influence on gas transient flow in pipe-and tank-leakage evaluation. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of all variables was performed to determine the most-important factors in the gas transient flow. Several case studies were used to illustrate the significance of this study. Engineers can perform a more-reliable evaluation of gas transient flow by following the method used in our study. The importance of gas transient flow in a gas pipeline and gas tank cannot be overemphasized in flow assurance. Owing to the advancement of technology in drilling, completion, offshore operation, and long-distance pipeline transportation, more and more offshore gas fields are being developed by means of subsea wellheads, with production being transported by long subsea pipelines, which increases gas-project feasibility through cost reduction because no platform is required. Yet, this type of development setup brings complexity and makes operation and maintenance challenging. Without the support of a platform, many operations, such as pipeline-leakage detection, pipeline pigging, pipeline testing, well shut-in, production startup or restart, and well workover, are difficult to conduct. Sometimes, it is impossible to fulfill the operation. Under such conditions, gas-transient-flow analysis stands out as a vital approach in diagnostics, and it is imperative in gas-pipeline and -tank design. An integrated and complicated gas-metering, -gathering, and -transportation system demands an accurate analysis of gas transient flow, through which efficient, cost-effective operation can be achieved.
The dry-gas seal (DGS) is a critical integrity component of the centrifugal or screw compressor, providing shaft sealing and preventing uncontrolled escape of process gas from the casing. Failure of this component in the compressor can result in plant outage and considerable revenue loss to the operating company. The DGS relies on a very thin gas film that is formed between a stationary ring and a rotating ring. Pressurized and clean seal gas is introduced to work as the gas film, preventing leakage of the compressor casing gas. Minor seal-gas leakage from the gas seal is at low pressure, and is usually collected in an enclosed system for disposal (e.g., low-pressure or atmospheric flare). Failure of the DGS seal is often not caused by its intrinsic design issues, but rather by aspects peripheral to the seal. Possible sources of supply evaluated in this study include high-pressure gas-export pipeline, multitrain arrangement to supply gas from the operating train to the standby train, and the use of gas boosters. Because the seal gas undergoes different levels of pressure reduction within the seal, potential liquid (or condensation) and, in some cases, solid (hydrate) formation in the gas seals must be studied together with its mitigating measures in the design to avoid seal failure. The possible presence of other contaminants because of sour-gas components is addressed, along with suggested treatment methods. Other design considerations, such as reverse rotation, depressurization limitations, and reverse pressurization, are also addressed. Whether engineers are engaged in designing the gas-compression system or in troubleshooting the facilities operation, a clear understanding of these various aspects is important. This paper does not address the design of the DGS, which is proprietary to the manufacturer. On the basis of past experiences, this paper describes the various salient features and peripheral requirements of the DGS, and offers recommendations for interfacing with the compressor vendor from the process-system-design and -operation perspectives. Centrifugal and screw compressors are common rotating equipment that find application in a variety of industries (e.g., oil-and gas-production facilities, refineries, and petrochemical works), operating over a wide range of pressures. A seal system between the casing and shaft is provided to prevent the escape of uncontrolled process gas to the atmosphere. Process gases that are hazardous or toxic will present serious safety issues when leaked to the environment. The loss of containment can cause facilities downtime, leading to loss of business revenue. In the last 2 decades, the design of the seals has evolved along with growth in the size of the compressors.
The core issues facing the world in current times--development, economy, and environment--are identified as being dependent on the provision of clean, efficient, affordable, and reliable energy services. Currently, the world is highly dependent on fossil fuels for provision of energy services, and the amount of which renewable energies can sufficiently replace is minimal. Selection of the optimum technology among the several separation technologies for a particular separation need requires special attention to harness the economic and environmental benefits. The use of fossil fuels inclusive of natural gas currently dominate the source of global energy supply, which are considered capable of meeting the world's increasing energy needs up to 84% by 2030 (IEA 2008, page 47) from the current demand of approximately 81% (IEA 2012, page 10).