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Methane (CH4), the primary constituent of natural gas and is the second-most abundant greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide (CO2), accounts for 16% of global emissions. The lifetime of methane in the atmosphere is much shorter than CO2, but CH4 is more efficient at trapping radiation than CO2. Pound for pound, the comparative effect of CH4 is more than 25 times greater than CO2 over a 100-year period. Natural-gas emissions from oil and gas facilities such as well sites, refineries, and compressor stations can have significant safety, economic, and regulatory effects. Continuous emission detection systems enable rapid identification and response to unintended emission events.
Natron Energy aims to scale up domestic manufacturing of sodium-ion batteries, and Bridger Photonics will target the operational efficiency for leak detection and emissions tracking. The cement industry is exploring carbon capture technology to reduce its carbon footprint. GHGSat announced a new service for visualizing greenhouse-gas emissions. The interactive online resource will be freely available and will be formally launched during COP26 in November. The pilot used sensor technology originally deployed by NASA for the Mars Curiosity Rover to collect methane emissions data live-streamed from a drone.
Chemical plants and refineries near the Houston Ship Channel are seen next to the Manchester neighborhood in the industrial east end of Houston on 9 August 2018. A multibillion dollar boom in petrochemical plants proposed along the US Gulf Coast could pump as much greenhouse gas into the air as 131 coal-fired power plants by 2030, according to a study released by researchers at the University of Texas. The study calculated that facilities that have been put forward for projects in Texas and Louisiana over the last 3 years could generate 541 million tons of greenhouse gases by the start of the next decade, trapping heat that leads to climate warming. The Gulf Coast petrochemical buildout alone will generate more than 8% of total US greenhouse gas emissions, according the study’s coauthor, Andrew Waxman, an assistant professor of economics and public policy at the University of Texas at Austin. A US petrochemical construction wave emerged last decade founded on cheap natural gas extracted from shale fields.
The pilot utilized sensor technology originally deployed by Nasa for the Mars Curiosity Rover to collect methane emissions data live-streamed from a drone. BP said it plans to deploy the technology to all of its North Sea assets, including ETAP and Glen Lyon, in 2020. Equinor Technology Ventures and OGCI Climate Investments have agreed to back the tech developer, which integrates its SeekIR miniature gas sensors onto drones to detect, localize, and quantify carbon emissions. Is Optical Gas Imaging the New Solution for Methane Detection? Thermal imaging helps operators maintain regulatory compliance on methane-emissions requirements.
During drilling or production operations, poisonous, highly flammable hazardous gases can be released into the environment. A next-generation gas emission monitoring system monitors gas leaks and can help the oil and gas industry improve workplace safety. The initial design, architecture, and development of a realtime monitoring and surveillance system consisting of drones capable of performing autonomous aerial inspections is discussed. This system monitors and reports the spatiotemporal evolution of hazardous gas clouds, such as H 2 S, CH 4, and CO 2, in the oil and gas facilities in real time and provides necessary actions for a safe operation. The proposed monitoring system is compared to the traditional monitoring approach where sensors are placed near the ground. This work is a significant improvement from the authors' previous work leveraging state-of-the-art machine learning technologies to create smart drones capable of making intelligent decisions involving gas leak monitoring.
After decades of hard debates, most of the scientists agree that earth climate changes are due to the increase of some gases (in particular CO2) produced by human activities.
The energy sector is the one that produces the highest level of GHG and nowadays oil and gas represent about 50% of global supply of primary energy.
In order to limit this environmental impact, many Oil Companies came together in different associations to propose some action plans to contain GHG emissions, especially CO2.
The OGCI (Oil & Gas Climate Initiative), for example, was born in 2014 with this aim and represents about one fifth of the global Oil&Gas production (27 Mboe/d).
It’s interesting to highlight that in the last ten years all the members, included ENI, have reduced GHG emissions coming from their operations of about 20%.
As for Upstream activities, Logistics represents for sure one of the sectors with more emissions, mainly related to marine and air transportation, although carried out by third parties.
For this reason, ENI Logistics department has recently created a monitoring system for CO2 emissions and a set of KPI able to give an idea of the environmental impact due to passengers and freight transportation.
These KPIs allow to understand the performance and take consequent actions for reducing CO2 emissions due to transportation activities (e.g. means release, synergies, economical speed, dynamic positioning and higher saturation).
INTRODUCTION – CO2 EMISSIONS IN OIL & GAS SECTOR
The ambitious agreement reached by the United Nations climate change conference “COP21” in Paris (December 2015) is an important milestone in the attempt to transform our energy systems. Oil and gas producers account for more than half of the energy that powers our economies today. Our sector accounts for about 5% of total manmade greenhouse gas emissions; in addition, the use of our products by other sectors including power, industry and transport accounts for an additional 32%. Companies are working with governments, international organizations and others to help reduce those emissions.
The recent adoption in 2013 of the IMO Energy Efficiency Design Index(EEDI) and Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) has resulted in a renewed interest to reduce overall ship fuel consumption and emissions. In spite of a number of benefits, the Flettner rotor has not yet been widely used. As a contribution to wider adoption of the Flettner rotor, the authors present the results of a recently completed study that examined why the Flettner rotor has not been adopted. We identified two problems- 1. Complexity in the rotor-ship matching calculation. and 2. Lack of a Flettner rotor output rating. After a brief discussion, the Flettner Rotor Ship Matching calculation is presented. It has been developed to enable a preliminary design of the ship with Flettner rotor(s). Using this methodology, it is also possible to examine the benefits of wind routing for maximum rotor output.
The paper considers mechanisms of well production increase by applying thermal-gas-chemical impact or liquid explosive injection in a pay zone. We have introduced the computing model for thermal-gas-chemical impact process for thoroughly investigation of different contribution on well post production. Numerical calculations of thermal effects on formation heating of particular well during thermal-gas-chemical impact showed that utilized explosive slug simply cannot cause actual increase of production rates and observed effect duration. Then we analyzed the contribution of pay zone cleaning from asphaltene, tar and paraffin precipitations. And finally the mechanism of micro fractures network formation was discussed. Assessments of required explosive concentrations and microfracturing parameters in thermal-gas-chemical impact were performed.
There are many definitions of sustainability, but the 1987 United Nations Brundtland Commission’s remains a standard.
“Meeting the needs of today without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (WCED 1987)
Some think oil and gas have little role in a sustainable future; global realities suggest otherwise. How is it that a finite energy resource and a source of greenhouse gas emissions can be part of a sustainable future? Oil and gas are essential to meeting the “needs of today;” their prudent use is the safest way to ensure we do not compromise the “ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
The Society of Petroleum Engineers Board of Directors adopted the following definition of sustainability in 2014:
“Exploration, development and production of oil and gas resources provide affordable energy that contributes significantly to well-being and prosperity.
SPE encourages the responsible management of these oil and gas resources and operations including the appropriate management of social and environmental impacts and their related risks.
SPE demonstrates this commitment by offering its members opportunities to train, share knowledge and advance practices for doing business in ways that balance economic growth, social development, and environmental protection to meet societal needs today and in the future.” (SPE 2014)
Petrowiki also has an excellent discussion of sustainability at http://petrowiki.org/Sustainability, including references to noteworthy papers from www.OnePetro.org.
Safe, affordable energy is central to quality of life. It is essential for farmers to be able to produce sufficient food; for the transportation of this food to consumers; and for housing, heating and cooling, clothing, and all other necessities of life. Quality of life is strongly correlated to energy use.
Supplying energy for the world is a monumental task. There continue to be improvements in renewable energy sources; however, reasonable forecasts of growth in renewables suggest fossil fuels will remain the primary source of the world’s energy for decades to come. Only radical growth in nuclear power could seriously diminish this result. The realities reflecting public concerns over nuclear safety and proliferation of radioactive materials make such growth unlikely.
While coal resources are abundant, concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and the possibilities of pricing carbon through taxes, caps, exchanges or other mechanisms, and the relatively low cost of natural gas, continue to make natural gas a more attractive fuel. This is true whether you expect it to be a relatively near-term “bridge fuel” to a renewable future or (as I do) part of our longer-term energy solutions.If oil and gas are to be part of a sustainable solution to our energy needs, there are some things we can and should do better as petroleum engineers.
There are many definitions of sustainability, but the 1987 United Nations Brundtland Commission’s remains a standard. How is it that a finite energy resource and a source of greenhouse gas emissions can be part of a sustainable future? Oil and gas are essential to meeting the “needs of today;” their prudent use is the safest way to ensure we do not compromise the “ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” SPE demonstrates this commitment by offering its members opportunities to train, share knowledge and advance practices for doing business in ways that balance economic growth, social development, and environmental protection to meet societal needs today and in the future.” Safe, affordable energy is central to quality of life.