However, other technologies can often be employed to investigate properties of the earth that correlate better with the properties of interest. If the images from these technologies can be provided at appropriate resolution, and if the knowledge required for interpretation and wise application of these technologies is available within the industry, they should be used. For example, electrical methods are extremely sensitive to variations in saturation, yet surface-based methods provide very poor resolution. Reservoir compaction can be directly observed from surface deformation, and pore-volume or gas-saturation changes can be detected from changes in the gravitational field. Dramatic examples of surface deformation induced by reservoir compaction have been provided by releveling studies (involving repeated high-accuracy surveying) and satellite-based interferometry.
Using heat to treat crude oil emulsions has four basic benefits; It reduces viscosity, increases droplets, dissolves paraffin crystals, and increases density between oil and water. Which allows the water droplets to collide with greater force and to settle more rapidly. The chart in Figure 1 can be used to estimate crude-oil viscosity/temperature relationships. Crude-oil viscosities vary widely, and the curves on this chart should be used only in the absence of specific data. If a crude oil's viscosity is known at two temperatures, it can be approximated at other temperatures by drawing a straight line along those temperature/viscosity points on the chart.
In order to provide the best possible strategy in dealing with hydrate formation, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding of the underlying conditions that lead to initial hydrate formation. While commercial software programs are available to examine phase equilibria, it is useful to understand the basics as a means to evaluate the computer results. The most accurate predictions of hydrate formation conditions are made using commercial phase equilibria computer programs. Of these two program types, the flash/Gibbs type is gaining pre-eminence because its predictions are available in the phase diagram interior (where many systems operate), whereas the incipient type provides the pressure/temperature (P/T) points of hydrate initiation. State-of-the-art programs are transitioning to the flash/Gibbs free-energy type.
This page provides a number of examples that illustrate the mathematical calculations behind the different fundamental gas properties. The density is calculated from Eq. 3 in Gas formation volume factor and density: The formation volume factor is calculated from Eq. 2 in Gas formation volume factor and density: The viscosity is determined using the charts of Carr et al. in Figs. The compressibility is determined by first reading Figs. First, calculate the apparent mole weight from the information presented in Table 1. Using Kay's rules, we obtain from the known gas composition: From Figure 1 in Real gases, we obtain zg 0.745.
Hydrocarbons occur in a variety of conditions, in different phases, and with widely varying properties, This page will cover the important geophysical properties of pore fluids. Pore fluids are fluids that occupy pore spaces in a soil or rock. Figure 1 shows schematically the relation among the different mixtures. For a single, constant composition mixture, as we vary temperature and pressure over a wide range, we would encounter the boundary between the single and multiphase regions. In contrast, if we restrict the temperatures and pressures to those typical of reservoirs, we could again move in this phase "space" by changing compositions.
Natural petroleum gases contain varying amounts of different (primarily alkane) hydrocarbon compounds and one or more inorganic compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen (N2), and water. Characterizing, measuring, and correlating the physical properties of natural gases must take into account this variety of constituents. A dry-gas reservoir is defined as producing a single composition of gas that is constant in the reservoir, wellbore, and lease-separation equipment throughout the life of a field. Some liquids may be recovered by processing in a gas plant. A wet-gas reservoir is defined as producing a single gas composition to the producing well perforations throughout its life.
Produced water typically enters the water-treatment system from either a two or three phase separator, a free water knockout, a gun barrel, a heater treater, or other primary separation unit process. It probably includes small amounts of free or dissolved hydrocarbons and solids that must be removed before the water can be re-used, injected or discharged. The level of removal (particularly for hydrocarbons) and disposal options are typically specified by state, province, or national regulations. This article discusses techniques for the removal of free and dissolved hydrocarbons. See Removing solids from water for information on solids removal. Produced water contains small concentrations (100 to 2000 mg/L) of dispersed hydrocarbons in the form of oil droplets. In applying these concepts, one must keep in mind the dispersion of large oil droplets to smaller ones and the coalescence of small droplets into larger ones, which takes place if energy is added to the system. The amount of energy added per unit time and the way in which it is added will determine whether dispersion or coalescence will take place. Stokes' law, shown in Eq. 1, is valid for the buoyant rise velocity of an oil droplet in a water-continuous phase. Several immediate conclusions can be drawn from this equation.