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Carbon dioxide (CO2) waterless fracturing uses liquid CO2 to replace water as the fracturing fluid in reservoir stimulation. The continuity and reliability of the blender are key factors determining performance of the operation. The complete paper discusses an advanced matrix-stimulation work flow that brings reliability and flexibility to the acidizing of tight carbonate water injectors and has delivered injectivity improvements tight carbonate onshore reservoirs in the Middle East. The complete paper discusses a method of stimulating deep, high-temperature offshore wells by combining an efficient single-phase retarded acid (SPRA) system and an engineered, degradable, large-sized particulate and fiber-laden diverter (LPFD). Several well-stimulation products and techniques have been seen to benefit well productivity from recent field trials and implementations in carbonate reservoirs, including simpler acid fluid systems, integrated work flows, and coiled-tubing bottomhole assemblies.
ExxonMobil is reluctant to join other big oil companies writing down the value of their reserves. It could chop its reserves by 20%, but it has not made a final decision. The forces of low oil prices and new efficiency trends are converging to remake the US pressure-pumping business into one that can complete more wells with less horsepower than ever. However, that might also mean service provider margins remain low for much of this new decade. Black Mountain executives outlined the key criteria they used to determine why Western Australia was a prime location for private-equity investment when looking at international unconventional plays.
What Damage Is Wrought by the Rush to Shut In Wells? The Permian Basin is now influencing the upstream water market on the way down, while many questions swirl around the implications of unprecedented shut-ins. Autonomous Inflow Control Valve technology demonstrates significant benefits within first year. Some well-testing operations are executed by performing multiple runs in hole using slickline and coiled tubing (CT). A technology has been developed that combines many of these operations, including contingency stimulation activities, into one run.
Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is an outstanding example of a steam injection process devised for a specific type of heavy oil reservoir utilizing horizontal wells. It is widely used in Alberta, Canada for recovery of heavy oil and tar sand resources. Several variations of the basic process have been developed, and are being tested. The original SAGD process, as developed by Butler, McNab, and Lo in 1979, utilizes two parallel horizontal wells in a vertical plane: the injector being the upper well and the producer the lower well (Figure 1, taken from Butler). If the oil/bitumen mobility is initially very low, steam is circulated in both wells for conduction heating of the oil around the wells.
Horizontal wells are being employed in innovative ways in steam injection operations to permit commercial exploitation of reservoirs that are considered unfavorable for steam, such as very viscous oils and bitumen and heavy oil formations with bottomwater. This page discusses some of the ways in which horizontal wells have been used to enhance steamflooding. Numerous papers have explored steam injection using horizontal- vertical-well combinations by use of scaled physical models or numerical simulators. For example, Chang, Farouq Ali, and George used scaled models to study five-spot steamfloods, finding that for their experimental conditions, a horizontal steam injector and a horizontal producer yielded the highest recovery. Figure 1 shows a comparison of oil recoveries for various combinations of horizontal and vertical wells and for four different cases: homogeneous formation, 10% bottomwater (% of oil zone thickness), 50% bottomwater, and homogeneous formation with 10% pore volume solvent injection before steam.
There are two fundamental problems that make accurately estimating the productivity of a horizontal well more difficult than estimating the productivity of a vertical well. The theoretical models available have a number of simplifying assumptions and the data required for even these simplified models are not likely to be available. Still, we must make estimates and decisions based on those estimates. In this page, two productivity models that have proved useful in practice are discussed. The first, published by Babu and Odeh in 1989, is limited to single-horizontal wells.
Moving their directional drillers into their Houston real-time remote operations centers has improved drilling efficiency for two of the top shale producers. This paper presents an interdisciplinary approach to the description of tectonic dislocations made on the basis of interpretation of seismic data, petrophysical analysis of well-logging data in horizontal wells, and inversion of a multifrequency propagation tool. This work presents a systematic geosteering work flow that automatically integrates a priori information and real-time measurements to update geomodels with uncertainties and uses the latest model predictions in a decision-support system (DSS). The use of intelligent software is on the rise in the industry and it is changing how engineers approach problems. A series of articles explores the potential benefits and limitations of this emerging area of data science.
The chief upstream strategist of IHS Markit said in a recent presentation that oil exploration must improve its ability to deliver value and better communicate that value to the financial community. New ways of thinking about exploration opportunities are needed. Producers in Oklahoma’s newly opened Merge play are sitting atop a resource that rivals some major world gas fields and discoveries, Citizen Energy’s Geology CEO Greg Augsburger told the SPE Gulf Coast Section Business Development Group recently. The Austin Chalk play could go through a revival if the industry can view the formation through “a fresh set of eyes,” says EnerVest’s Tony Maranto. Dimethyl-ether (DME) -enhanced waterflood (DEW) is a process in which DME is added to injection water and, upon injection, preferentially partitions into the remaining oil.
This paper presents a coupled 3D fluid-flow and geomechanics simulator developed to model induced seismicity resulting from wastewater injection. The complete paper discusses the advancements in mud-displacement simulation that overcome the limitations of the previous-generation simulator and provide a more-realistic simulation in highly deviated and horizontal wells.
The complete paper discusses the advancements in mud-displacement simulation that overcome the limitations of the previous-generation simulator and provide a more-realistic simulation in highly deviated and horizontal wells. Operators in the North Sea have been concerned about the ability of the cement sheath to maintain sealing integrity because of the increasing number of reported failures in mature wells. This paper presents results from a new laboratory setup to visualize the source of issues. Many wells in the Cana-Woodford shale suffer from chronic sustained casing pressure (SCP) because of poor cement-sheath bonding. As deeper and more complex well designs proliferate throughout oil and gas fields, well completion methods are challenged and new technologies are emerging to ensure safe, cost-efficient, and optimized completions.