Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. A production or injection well logging technique where the zones is logged for water saturation, oil saturation or temperature, followed by fluid injection, followed by another logging pass. Data available include changes in saturations, quantitative/qualitative determination of injection location and amount of temperature charge, etc.
Heavy oil is defined as liquid petroleum of less than 20 API gravity or more than 200 cp viscosity at reservoir conditions. No explicit differentiation is made between heavy oil and oil sands (tar sands), although the criteria of less than 12 API gravity and greater than 10,000 cp are sometimes used to define oil sands. The oil in oil sands is an immobile fluid under existing reservoir conditions, and heavy oils are somewhat mobile fluids under naturally existing pressure gradients. Unconsolidated sandstones (UCSS) are sandstones (or sands) that possess no true tensile strength arising from grain-to-grain mineral cementation. Many heavy oil reservoirs are located in unconsolidated sandstones.
In-situ combustion requires standard field equipment for oil production, but with particular attention to air compression, ignition, well design, completion, and production practices. Air-compression systems are critical to the success of any in-situ combustion field project. Past failures often can be traced to poor compressor design, faulty maintenance, or operating mistakes. See Compressors for a detailed discussion of compressors and sizing considerations. Other discussions are available in Sarathi.
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. One of several methods involving injecting a chemical into a formation to improve the production of hydrocarbon. May be from an injection well to a production well or injection into a producer with a soak period before recovery.
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. In the context of completion, ICV stands for internal control valve. In the context of injection, ICV stands for injection control valve.
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. Also used in some fracturing operations, to spot fluids downhole when no packer is used or a type of injection valve is in the tubing to allow entry of chemicals, gas or water.
While always an implicit goal in steamflood processes, overall process heat management became a topic in the literature in the mid-1980s. The growth of the discipline has closely followed the development of the personal computer and computer applications. Heat management consists of data gathering, data monitoring and adjustments to the process as discussed in this page. Figure 1 is a graphical representation of the major components of a heat balance that must be performed to properly manage a steamflood process. Ziegler et al. published a very good summary of a method of implementing the principle.
For any steamflood process, no matter how efficient, the major cost is always that of generating the process steam. Whether the product of oilfield steam generators, industrial boilers, or electrical/steam cogeneration plants, steam must be delivered through a network of pipes and through pipes down a wellbore to the oil bearing formation. It is imperative that the unavoidable heat losses in this distribution system be minimized with some type of insulating system. The rate of heat loss in surface lines is usually calculated at steady-state conditions because transients disappear quickly in surface pipes. The terms in Eq. 2 are the coefficients of heat transfer for each of the layers of an insulated pipe as shown in Figure 1.