Drilling operations are faced with conditions of subsurface uncertainty with unexpected drilling hazard potential. Operation is done in 24 hours a day continuously, until drilling is declared complete. The consequence of this work environment is the potential for high work accident, one of which is caused by situational conditions in the field that allow the communication limitations in clear and detailed.
Such conditions may include high-noise working conditions, limited visibility due to weather hazards (rain, fog, dark / night), and sour gas exposure. In this condition, often verbal communication is followed by non verbal communication, either in the form of the use of horns (morse), flag raising (semaphore) and limb movements. Non-verbal communication will be more urgent if the drilling operation conditions in emergency conditions, such as the occurrence of kick, blowout and exposure to sour gases. Non-verbal communication occasionally used in any drilling site does not have standardization, thus increasing the potential for communication errors.
Methods Non-verbal instructions intended in this paper is a sign language that serves as a medium for delivering work orders (instructions). This non verbal instruction uses one limb, represented by at least 2 limb movements in at least 2 stages of movement, to interpret a command or work instruction. If less than 2 movements or less than 1 stage of movement, then the movement of the body may have meaning, but can not be implemented because the instructions are not complete
With the invention, paper and efforts of this standardization, the communication process and the delivery of orders in both normal and emergency conditions at the drilling sites can be carried out in a structured, standardized, clear, detailed and widely applicable manner. The instruction method in the form of non-verbal codes is named: NS Blind Code Drilling, which has been registered since December 2014 to the Directorate General of Intellectual Property Rights and is in process related to the patent application.
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You have access to this full article to experience the outstanding content available to SPE members and JPT subscribers. To ensure continued access to JPT's content, please Sign In, JOIN SPE, or Subscribe to JPT LOAT is based on incremental automation of the four cognitive functions of interaction. Levels of human/system interaction are described on a nine-point scale ranging from fully manual, to levels of system support for the human, to levels of automation overseen by the human, to full automation. LOAT is a powerful tool for mapping the transition from a purely manual process, to the degree of automation that any system can achieve in the early transition phase, through a timeline to full automation. The transition levels from manual to autonomous were likened to the four cognitive functions that occur in both human interaction with machinery and automated interaction with machinery.
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Many high-impact career fields such as law enforcement and first responders to threats now require strong, high-quality training in complex science topics such as radiation, chemicals, and explosives detection and mitigation. In addition, more students must be encouraged to enter science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) disciplines to sustain innovation and encourage transformations for the future of our society. Unfortunately, many traditional learning environments have lost their luster in achieving transformational change in increasing STEM motivation and learning, as evidenced by the dwindling STEM pipeline in schools. A recent article shows that interest among teen boys in STEM careers after middle school has dropped precipitously from 36% to 24% in the past few years (Marotti, 2018).
The traditional approaches to learning such as instructor-led handson training is costly and cannot be delivered quickly to geographically dispersed locations. Lecture-based instruction, printed materials and multimedia videos do not support strong, on-demand, consistent and high-quality training for first responders to threats. These personnel may be situated in remote locations or may not have the ability to travel for in-person training. First responders also have diverse background knowledge and are not expected to be experts in science. Experiencing the use of detection equipment through virtual reality (VR) may provide the closest thing to hands-on training in time-sensitive and geographically dispersed situations.
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