In-situ combustion requires standard field equipment for oil production, but with particular attention to air compression, ignition, well design, completion, and production practices. Air-compression systems are critical to the success of any in-situ combustion field project. Past failures often can be traced to poor compressor design, faulty maintenance, or operating mistakes. See Compressors for a detailed discussion of compressors and sizing considerations. Other discussions are available in Sarathi.
Positive displacement pumps were developed long before centrifugal pumps. Liquid is positively displaced from a fixed-volume container. Positive-displacement pumps are capable of developing high pressures while operating at low suction pressures. They are commonly referred to as constant-volume pumps. Unlike centrifugal pumps, their capacity is not affected by the pressure against which they operate. Flow is usually regulated by varying the speed of the pump or by recycle. Positive-displacement pumps are divided into two groups: rotary and reciprocating pumps.
Many devices are connected to the downhole sucker-rod equipment through the polished rod on the surface that imparts the reciprocating motion to the rod string and pump. In the history of sucker-rod pumping, a standalone, surface pumping unit has become the proven technology. Many pumping unit types are commercially available. Those most widely used have a walking beam as the horizontal load-bearing element and a sampson post that vertically supports the beam. These terminologies and configurations were adapted from the cable-tool drilling rigs used to drill early oil wells and developed into the conventional pumping unit.
Separation of gas and liquids is a key processing function for any production operation. Several approaches exist to accomplishing this separation subsea, as described on this page. Which is most appropriate to use depends on the fluids and conditions specific to the particular location. By separating the gas and liquid phases and pumping the liquid stream, this simplest of systems will capture most of the benefits of subsea processing. It will reduce backpressure to the wells and eliminate problems associated with multiphase flow.
This page provides examples including calculations involved in the design and optimization of hydraulic pumping systems for artificial lift. Examples are included for both jet pumps and reciprocating hydraulic pump types. The following is an example of a design for a well using a jet pumping system. The design data must be carefully collected and is shown in Table 1. Because there are numerous possible combinations, and a design typically requires many iterations, current design methods utilize computer software programs.
The prices are based on build cost for a certain mud weight and a daily maintenance expense. These costs vary from different mud types and are dependent on the chemicals and weighting material required and on the base fluid phase, such as water or oil. Miscellaneous cost factors include specialty products such as hydrogen sulfide scavengers, lost-circulation materials, and hole-stability chemicals. The build cost for a mud system (Figure 1) is the price for the individual components and mixing requirements.
New research from DNV GL reveals that 46% of senior professionals in the oil and gas sector believe there has been underinvestment in inspection and maintenance of infrastructure and equipment in recent years. Between 2009 and 2016, SPE facilitated a series of global sessions to develop ideas for the future advancement of health, safety, and the environment in the industry. The result is the technical report “Getting to Zero and Beyond: The Path Forward.”
Air Products, BHGE, Norsafe, and Sofec won contracts for Eni’s Coral South FLNG project in Mozambique. A routine maintenance project became more complicated when an ROV inspection exposed unexpected trenching that reduced the holding capacity of the system. As many platforms begin to produce beyond their design life, maintenance of mooring systems becomes more critical. With redundancies in place, operators may be unaware of initial failures, which can have major consequences if another failure occurs.