Gas turbines range in size from microturbines at 50 hp (37.3 kW) to large industrial turbines of 250,000 hp (190 kW). This page focuses on the gas turbine engine, the differences between types of turbines, and items to consider when they are applied as the prime mover. As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 1, the "open" Brayton cycle is the thermodynamic cycle for all gas turbines. Air enters the compressor inlet at ambient conditions (Point 1), is compressed (Point 2), and passes through the combustion system, where it is combined with fuel and "fired" to the maximum cycle temperature (Point 3). The heated air is expanded through the gas producer turbine section (between Points 3 and 5), where the energy of the working fluid is extracted to generate power for driving the compressor, and expanded through the power turbine to drive the load (Point 7).
Noise logging is an inexpensive way to investigate whether there is channeling in injection or production wells. The noise-logging tool "listens" passively to downhole noise, for example, from gas bubbling up through liquid in the wellbore. Behind pipe, a channeling flow often passes through cramped spaces and constrictions. These "tight spots" cause high velocities, sudden pressure reductions, and significant flow turbulence. The noise tool listens to the noise associated with the turbulence.
Production logging tools can provide important information for assessing a gas blowout after abandonment. A well was drilled through two gas zones on the way to test a deeper oil zone. The well was abandoned and the wellhead cut at the seafloor. Six months after abandonment, there was a gas blowout to the surface, causing the sea to churn. A relief well was drilled in order to flood the blowing zone.
Although many measurements are taken while drilling, the term MWD refers to measurements taken downhole with an electromechanical device located in the bottomhole assembly (BHA). Telemetry methods had difficulty in coping with the large volumes of downhole data, so the definition of MWD was broadened to include data that were stored in tool memory and recovered when the tool was returned to the surface. Power systems in MWD generally may be classified as one of two types: battery or turbine. Both types of power systems have inherent advantages and liabilities. In many MWD systems, a combination of these two types of power systems is used to provide power to the MWD tool so power will not be interrupted during intermittent drilling-fluid flow conditions.
Millions of workers are exposed to noise in the workplace every day and, when uncontrolled, noise exposure may cause permanent hearing loss. Research demonstrates exposure to certain chemicals, called ototoxicants, may cause hearing loss or balance problems, regardless of noise exposure. Noise is one of the harmful agents to health that is present in the various branches of economic activity. Hearing loss and tinnitus are among the most frequently reported complaints by workers exposed to occupational noise.
The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the State of North Dakota, and the Bakken Basin Safety Consortium have signed an alliance to protect employees and promote safety and health in the oil and gas industry. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health is collaborating with partners in industry, government, academia, and labor and with other stakeholders to achieve successful and sustainable outcomes to improve worker safety and health across the oil and gas extraction industry. The tool, called the Field Analysis of Silica Tool, works with commercially available Fourier-transform infrared analyzers to determine a worker’s exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust, providing detailed results immediately following a worker’s shift. Millions of workers are exposed to noise in the workplace every day and, when uncontrolled, noise exposure may cause permanent hearing loss. Research demonstrates exposure to certain chemicals, called ototoxicants, may cause hearing loss or balance problems, regardless of noise exposure.
OSHA’s efforts to require employers to report occupational fatalities and certain injuries in a timely manner lack “sufficient guidance on how to detect and prevent underreporting,” the Department of Labor Office of Inspector General states in its semiannual report to Congress. To better protect workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica, OSHA has issued two new standards: one for construction and another for general industry and maritime. OSHA will begin enforcing most provisions of the standard for general industry and maritime on 23 June. Millions of workers are exposed to noise in the workplace every day and, when uncontrolled, noise exposure may cause permanent hearing loss. Research demonstrates exposure to certain chemicals, called ototoxicants, may cause hearing loss or balance problems, regardless of noise exposure.
Pioneer shut in 8,000 BOE/D production in its West Panhandle field in Texas on 6 March due to a compression station fire. Planning to use idle compressors, production is expected to restart later this month or in early April. As compressor stations are added to the natural gas gathering and transmission networks, the potential noise issues are coming under increasing public scrutiny at the same time as regulations are being rolled back.
Facilities Piping Inspection: Is Direct Assessment Enough? Tons of resources are devoted to assure the integrity of facility piping systems, but are the generally accepted methods of inspecting these systems the best way? Complex systems with above- and underground piping sections may require a combination of direct assessment and elements of an API code. Pipeline approvals can be a polarizing topic and advocacy for their viability is crucial for companies. What technologies are being developed to help bolster pipeline integrity, and how is the industry working to assure the general public of their safety and reliability?
In both developed and developing countries, noise is regarded as the most common occupational hazard in various industries. The present study aimed to examine the effect of sound pressure level on serum cortisol concentration in three different times during the night shift. An examination of studies on air pollutants associated with oil and gas extraction finds that measurements near operational sites have generally failed to mark levels above standard health benchmarks; yet, many studies find poor health outcomes increasing as distance from these operations decreases. "I have some patients whose symptoms I can’t explain," physician Ulrike Meyer said, describing nosebleeds, rare cancers, and respiratory illness among a dearth of data. A partnership between ConocoPhillips, Marathon Oil, and XTO Energy has resulted in the opening of a new clinic catering to the safety and health of oil and gas employees in Carlsbad, New Mexico.