The pipeline system that conveys the individual-well production or that of a group of wells from a central facility to a central system or terminal location is a gathering pipeline. Generally, the gathering pipeline system is a series of pipelines that flow from the well production facilities in a producing field to a gathering "trunk" pipeline. Gathering systems typically require small-diameter pipe that runs over relatively short distances. The branch lateral lines commonly are 2 to 8 in. Gathering systems should be designed to minimize pressure drop without having to use large-diameter pipe or require mechanical pressure-elevation equipment (pumps for liquid and compressors for gas) to move the fluid volume. For natural-gas gathering lines, the Weymouth equation can be used to size the pipe. "Cross-country" transmission pipelines will collect the product from many "supply" sources and "deliver" to one or more end users. Transmission pipelines will generally require much larger pipe than gathering systems. Transmission systems normally are designed for long distances and will require pressure-boosting equipment along the route. Many factors must be considered when designing, building, and operating a pipeline system. Once the basic pipe ID is determined using the applicable flow formula, the other significant design parameters must be addressed. For U.S. applications, gathering, transmission and distribution pipelines are governed by regulations and laws that are nationally administered by the U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT).
Production operations in the offshore artic regions are within the reach of existing technology. Procedures used onshore and offshore in less hostile regions, however, must be modified to meet the challenges of the harsh climatic conditions in the remote locations. In the last decade, the major area of industry interest has been the offshore region of Alaska and Canada. The environmental conditions vary significantly in each of these regions. The specific production system that is selected must be tailored to each unique combination of these factors to ensure safe oilfield development.
A vast fraction of the world's gas is brought to the market through pipelines. Several large pipeline projects are currently being evaluated. Pipelines can be over land or under water. Underwater pipelines have been used in the North Sea. However, water depth is a critical parameter that poses difficult challenges.
There are few deepwater-pipeline operators with expertise in pipeline repairs. This paper describes a strategy developed and implemented on deepwater-pipeline intervention, based on a deepwater operational experience built over a decade. The market for subsea vessel operations in field development; inspection, repair, and maintenance (IRM); and subsea well intervention is expected to grow 63% during 2012 to 2016.
Low prices will constrain maintenance and modifications in the coming year. However, maintenance can only be delayed so long, leading to a long-term outlook of growth in the market for maintenance, modifications, and operations. There are few deepwater-pipeline operators with expertise in pipeline repairs. This paper describes a strategy developed and implemented on deepwater-pipeline intervention, based on a deepwater operational experience built over a decade. Compared to the US industrial average downtime ranging from 3% to 5%, the oil and gas industry’s estimated downtime ranges from 5% to 10%,indicating that improvement is needed in reliability and maintenance of facilities, equipment, and processes.
The outlook in the UK is a case study of the squeeze facing E&P in other basins where operators are trying to pay to sustain production with discoveries, while plugging and abandoning old wells, all paid for by the lean cash flow due to low oil prices. Subsea inspection/repair/maintenance services have traditionally relied on vessel-based, ROV, or diver operations. In the longer term, identifying significant incremental savings in these operations is not sustainable and an innovative approach deploying digital technologies is being investigated. The deal gives Equinor an additional 7.5% ownership stake in the Njord redevelopment project and associated tiebacks in the Norwegian Sea, and potentially raises Faroe’s value in the midst of a hostile takeover attempt by DNO. Startup comes 8 months after the initial discovery in March, marking the second successful tieback since 2017 to the Beryl Alpha platform in the UK North Sea.
The complete paper proposes an azimuthal plane-wave-destruction (AzPWD) seismic-diffraction-imaging work flow to efficiently emphasize small-scale features associated with subsurface discontinuities such as faults, channel edges, and fracture swarms. This paper contrasts the detailed perforating and flowback plan with the results of the operation where a number of planned, and some unplanned, contingencies were faced. A hybrid downhole microseismic and microdeformation array was deployed to monitor fracture stimulation of a vertical coal-seam-gas (CSG) exploration well in the Gloucester Basin in New South Wales, Australia, to provide more-accurate insight into overall fracture height. This paper outlines the key issues that must be addressed from a regulatory perspective in regard to the development of an onshore unconventional-gas industry in the Northern Territory. This paper provides an insight into the challenges encountered and overcome during installation of 20 subsea structures, some close to 1000 t in weight and in water depths of up to 1350 m, for the Gorgon project offshore Western Australia.
Subsea inspection/repair/maintenance services have traditionally relied on vessel-based, ROV, or diver operations. In the longer term, identifying significant incremental savings in these operations is not sustainable and an innovative approach deploying digital technologies is being investigated. GATE will provide facility commissioning and Subsea 7 will provide a pair of infield production flowlines and the umbilical system for Shell’s recently sanctioned deepwater GOM development. Executives from several service companies involved in the offshore space—including two sides of a recent hostile takeover bid—came together at OTC to discuss the virtues of collaboration and rationale behind M&A. McDermott’s board of directors rejected an acquisition offer from Subsea 7, which called for McDermott to abandon its planned $6-billion combination with CB&I.
If sanctioned and developed, the deepwater Pecan field would be Ghana’s fourth producing offshore field. First oil is expected 35 months after sanction, which could come as early as this year. The steel pipe manufacturer agrees to deliver outer pipes for pipe-in-pipe flowlines for a pair of recently-announced Aker BP projects in the Norwegian Sea. Oilfield Services: How Much Consolidation is Yet To Come? The recent upswing in M&As in the oilfield services sector may be a harbinger of more to come as operators push for capex and opex control.
BP and partners have sanctioned the Azeri Central East project, the next stage of development of the giant Azeri-Chirag-Deepwater Gunashli oilfield complex in the Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea. The startup of a second FPSO will add 115,000 BOPD to the deepwater project offshore Angola, bringing overall production capacity to 230,000 BOPD. If sanctioned and developed, the deepwater Pecan field would be Ghana’s fourth producing offshore field. First oil is expected 35 months after sanction, which could come as early as this year. Are Deepwater Projects Due for a Revival?