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Bentonite is not typically used as the primary fluid-loss agent in normal-density slurries. In low-density slurries, where higher concentrations can be used, it may provide sufficient fluid-loss control (400 to 700 cm 3 /30 min) for safe placement in noncritical well applications. Fluid-loss control, obtained through the use of bentonite, is achieved by the reduction of filter-cake permeability by pore-throat bridging. Microsilica imparts a degree of fluid-loss control to cement slurries because of its small particle size of less than 5 microns. The small particles reduce the pore-throat volume within the cement matrix through a tighter packing arrangement, resulting in a reduction of filter-cake permeability.
Remedial cementing requires as much technical, engineering, and operational experience, as primary cementing but is often done when wellbore conditions are unknown or out of control, and when wasted rig time and escalating costs force poor decisions and high risk. Squeeze cementing is a "correction" process that is usually only necessary to correct a problem in the wellbore. Before using a squeeze application, a series of decisions must be made to determine (1) if a problem exists, (2) the magnitude of the problem, (3) if squeeze cementing will correct it, (4) the risk factors present, and (5) if economics will support it. Most squeeze applications are unnecessary because they result from poor primary-cement-job evaluations or job diagnostics. Squeeze cementing is a dehydration process.
Introduction The drilling-fluid system--commonly known as the "mud system"--is the single component of the well-construction process that remains in contact with the wellbore throughout the entire drilling operation. Drilling-fluid systems are designed and formulated to perform efficiently under expected wellbore conditions. Advances in drilling-fluid technology have made it possible to implement a cost-effective, fit-for-purpose system for each interval in the well-construction process. The active drilling-fluid system comprises a volume of fluid that is pumped with specially designed mud pumps from the surface pits, through the drillstring exiting at the bit, up the annular space in the wellbore, and back to the surface for solids removal and maintenance treatments as needed. The capacity of the surface system usually is determined by the rig size, and rig selection is determined by the well design. For example, the active drilling-fluid volume on a deepwater well might be several ...
Well preparation includes many activities to ensure that the well is completed properly. Some of these items and activities include appropriate drilling practices, cleanliness, completion fluids, perforating, perforation cleaning, acidizing, and/or specifications for rig and service company personnel. The productivity of a cased- or openhole gravel-packed completion is determined in part by the condition of the reservoir behind the filter cake, the quality of the filter cake, and the stability of the wellbore. Given this, it can be said that the completion begins when the bit enters the pay. Thus, it follows that the goal of drilling is to maintain wellbore stability while minimizing formation damage. But, for whatever reason, instability affects both cased- and openhole completions because it can cause loss of the wellbore. Thick cement sheaths in washed-out sections result in poor to no perforation penetration and the lack of cement can make sand placement difficult. Hole collapse can prevent running screens to the bottom of the hole. Failure, in the form of fracturing or collapse, can stop an openhole gravel pack, should failure occur while the pack is in process.
Contamination of drilling fluids with drilled cuttings is an unavoidable consequence of successful drilling operations. If the drilling fluid does not carry cuttings and cavings to the surface, the rig either is not "making hole" or soon will be stuck in the hole it is making. The drill cuttings that are separated from the drilling fluid on the surface by the soldis control equipment and some quantity of unrecoverable or economically unwanted drilling fluid are a major source of drilling waste. Drilled and formation solids that are sized smaller than can be removed by the solids control equipment are often reported as drill solids. Some quantitiy of drill solids will accumulate in the drilling fluid and must be removed by the solids control equipment or reduced in concentration by dilution.
Abstract Maintaining the integrity of the drilling-fluid column is vital for safety and operational efficiency. Stable, controlled fluid density provides a primary pressure barrier during the drilling phase. Non-aqueous fluids (NAFs) provide huge benefits for nearly all aspects of difficult drilling situations, yet still can have challenges related to weight suspension. The geometry and annular restrictions of modern well designs often demand low fluid rheology parameters to avoid excessive circulating pressures, and this unsurprisingly increases the risks of sagging weight material. Given the importance of understanding the fluid behaviors in these situations, operators and service companies have made significant efforts to develop reliable sag testing methods. Older methods of testing neglected movement and instead centered on mimicking the downhole conditions such as temperature and hydrostatic pressure. Variations of this static aging method addressed the critical angle where Boycott settling accelerates the sag. More complex, dynamic methods were devised later in time to provide greater insight on sag behaviors. Although engineers and scientists have made numerous strides to create a definitive sag test, the current tests have limited capabilities. Very few are capable of working in an offshore environment. Sag events continue to be costly and problematic to operators’ main objectives of drilling and completing their wells safely and efficiently. The authors address results from the current state of the art in sag testing and compare these to a proprietary dynamic procedure created in 2019. While the method is still in development, its capabilities have been well defined. Fluid samples are kept in constant motion at low-ranging shear rates and elevated temperatures to simulate sag-prone conditions downhole. Results indicate a high degree of correlation to the expected sag with different sizes of barite in low-ECD fluids.
Abstract During drilling of permeable reservoirs, drilling fluid may penetrate the formation and induce damage to the reservoir rock. Specifically, solids present in the drilling fluid may enter the formation and cause subsequent reduction in reservoir permeability in the area near the wellbore. When drilling with a water-based drilling fluid in a reservoir, various polymer-based additives are normally applied to reduce the filtration loss. These additives, such as Xanthan Gum, Poly Anionic Cellulose (PAC) and Starch may help in reducing losses to the formation in presence of small pore-throats and low differential pressures. If the pore throats exceed e.g. 20μm and differential pressures reach 500psi, these additives have little effect on reducing loss of drilling fluid to the formation and thereby little effect in preventing solids from entering the formation. Lost circulation is particularly challenging when losses occur in the reservoir section. This is because LCM treatment may create formation damages. Green et al. (SPE-185889) showed the nature of drilling fluid invasion, clean-up, and retention during reservoir formation drilling. They also showed the lack of direct relation between fluid loss and formation damage. In light of such ideas, a development of new Non-Invasive Fluid (NIF) additives was conducted. These additives were able to handle downhole pressure differences and create a preventative sealing of a permeable formation when applied into a solids-free drilling fluid. Ceramic discs of various permeability and mean pore-throat size were installed into a HTHP pressure cell. Drilling fluid was pumped through the cell and a filter cake was formed across the ceramic disc. A pressure of 500psi was applied and filtration loss was measured over a 30-minute period. Examples are herein presented showing how filter cake materials were applied into the drilling fluid and effectively sealing the permeable surface of the ceramic disc. Also, it will be shown how the filter cake was effectively removed from the discs using a breaker solution. Furthermore, a selection of experiments is presented, showing the possibility to heal lost circulation in permeable reservoirs without the presence of weighing materials, clays or drill-solids in the drilling fluid. A test was also conducted in such a way that the disc was fractured inside the test cell to investigate the impact on fluid loss.
Abstract Logging hydrocarbon production potential of wells has been at the forefront of enhancing oil and gas exploration and maximize productivity from oil and gas reservoirs. A major challenge is accurate downhole fluid phases flow velocity measurements in production logging (PLT) due to the criticality of mechanical spinner-based sensor devices. Ultrasonic Doppler-based sensors are more robust and deployable either in wireline or logging while drilling (LWD) conditions; however, due to the different sensing physics, the measurement results may vary. Ultrasonic Doppler flow meters utilize the Doppler effect that is a change in frequency of the sound waves that are reflected on a moving target. A common example is the change in pitch when a vehicle sounding a horn approaches and recedes from an observer. The frequency shift is in direct proportion of the relative velocity of the fluid with respect to the emitter-receiver and allows to infer the speed of the flowing fluid. Doppler flow meters offer many advantages over mechanical spinners such as the ability to measure without requiring calibration passes, the absence of mechanical moving parts, the sensors robustness to shocks and hits, easy installation and minimal affection by changes in temperature, density and viscosity of the fluid thus capability to work even in highly contaminated conditions such as tar, asphaltene deposits on equipment. Despite being widely used in surface flow metering, ultrasonic Doppler sensor applications to downhole environment have been so far very limited. We present in this work an innovative deep learning framework to estimate spinner phase velocities from Doppler based sensor velocities. Tests of the framework on a benchmark data set displayed strong estimation results, in particular outlining the ability to utilize Doppler-based sensors for downhole phase velocity measurements and allows the comparison of the estimates with previously recorded spinner velocity measurements. This allows for the real-time automated interpretative framework implementation and flow velocity estimations either in conventional wireline production logging technologies and potentially also in LWD conditions, when the well is flowing in underbalanced conditions.
Kebert, Brent (Colorado School of Mines) | Almulhim, Abdulraof (Colorado School of Mines) | Miskimins, Jennifer (Colorado School of Mines) | Hunter, William (Ovintiv Inc) | Soehner, Gage (Ovintiv Inc)
Abstract Successfully treating each cluster within a hydraulic fracturing stage is a key objective for "plug-n-perf" well completions. Most operating companies would agree that the main underlying desire for a successful completion is related to future production capability. In unconventional reservoirs, propped and conductive hydraulic fractures are the primary completion result that drives production and reserve recovery. When designing a treatment, the spacing of clusters is critical to optimizing production and reserve recovery parameters, and therefore, even proppant distribution across a single stage delivers a well the greatest potential for optimized production performance. Diverting the fracturing fluid and proppant evenly across the clusters in a stage allows the greatest opportunity for each cluster to produce equally and drain the associated reservoir volume. Generating equal, producing fractures across a horizontal wellbore is a difficult problem that operators are still trying to solve. This work models the fluid and proppant distribution across a field-scale, 250-ft long, horizontal hydraulic fracturing stage, replicating realistic field conditions. By utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD), this paper investigates the effected proppant distribution results from a fracturing stage mimicking the presence of both a leaking plug and the impacts of stress shadowing. The proppant concentration throughout the wellbore, along with internal wellbore pressure and velocity, are also reviewed to gain an understanding of the effect of the field conditions. Additionally, this paper illustrates the effect of different proppant "ramping" conditions during the fracturing stage. Proppant ramping schedules can be smooth or sharp when increasing proppant concentration, which alters the proppant concentrations throughout the wellbore and associated perforation clusters. Unanticipated alterations of the proppant concentration within the wellbore can lead to early screenouts. Gaining a better understanding of the proppant distribution and concentration inside the wellbore can lead to improved designs of hydraulic fracturing completions.
Abstract The main functions of hydraulic fracturing fluids are to create a fracture network and to carry and place the proppant into the created fractures networks, thus, adding to fracture conductivity. Significant research has been performed to develop ideal fracturing fluid systems. The development focus has mainly been on optimization of a fluid rheology that can transport and place the proppant into the primary and any subsidiary fractures with less damage to the formation and at a lower cost. The main goal of this work is to add to the understanding and optimization of proppant transport in complex hydraulic fracture networks. Specifically for this study, focus is placed on two different fluids, water-glycerin solution and water-sodium chloride solution, representing varying fluid densities and viscosities. The effects of changing fluid viscosities, densities, proppant densities, proppant sizes, proppant concentrations, and slurry injection rates on proppant transport were then experimentally investigated. This experimental work shows that viscosity has a greater impact on the proppant transport than fluid density does, thus implying a larger impact on the resulting fracture conductivity. The results of this work show that a water-glycerin solution, with a viscosity of 4.3 cp, has significant proppant carrying capacity with proppants delivered uniformly to greater distances. On the other hand, the results show that a water-sodium chloride solution of 9.24 ppg density has less capability to carry the proppant deep into the fractures indicating that viscosity has a greater impact on the proppant transport than fluid density does. The lab results also showed that increasing proppant concentrations and injection rates has a positive impact on proppant transport.