The theme of the SPE Young Professionals Workshop held in Biarritz, France, during 20–23 March was "Our Challenging Future: Preparing Today's Young Professionals for Tomorrow's Challenges." Judging by the feedback from attendees, the workshop achieved exactly what the steering committee intended. The event was attended by 47 young professionals representing 21 companies and 18 different nationalities. There was a roughly 50/50 split between representation from service and operating companies and a 60/40 male/female representation. There was an interesting cross section of professional interests among attendees: reservoir engineers, geoscientists, production engineers, drilling engineers, economists, and business developers.
Additional environmental review of the disputed Dakota Access oil pipeline is likely to take the rest of the year to complete, US officials said in court documents in which they also advocate for keeping the line operating during the study. A federal judge ruled on 14 June that the environmental review for the Dakota Access pipeline was, in part, inadequate and must be reconsidered, handing tribal opponents of the 1,170-mile pipeline project a key legal victory.
Unconventional oil and gas have come to dominate the exploration and development scene in Western Canada since 2005, much as they have in the US. As usually happens with new play ideas and trends, appraisal and development have generated a broad spectrum of results in Canadian Unconventional plays. The Energy East Pipeline involves the conversion of an existing TransCanada gas pipeline to oil service, as well as the construction of 1500 km of new pipeline. With a capacity of 1.1 million B/D, it will eliminate the need to import foreign crude oil to refineries in Quebec and New Brunswick.
Makwashi, Nura (Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, London South Bank University) | Barros, Delcia Soraia David (Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, London South Bank University) | Sarkodie, Kwame (Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, London South Bank University) | Zhao, Donglin (Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, London South Bank University) | Diaz, Pedro A. (Division of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, London South Bank University)
Production, transportation and storage of highly waxy crude oil is very challenging. This is because they are usually characterised by high content of macro-crystalline waxes, predominantly consisting of n-alkanes (C18 to C36) that which could cause costly deposition within the wellbore and production equipment. The accumulation of deposited wax can decrease oil production rates, cause equipment breakdown, and clog the transport and storage facilities. Currently, different polymeric inhibitors have been utilised in the oil and gas field to mitigate and prevent wax deposition. However, as of today, there is no distinctive wax inhibitor that could work effectively for all oil fields. One of the objectives of this work is to study the efficacy of a blended commercial wax inhibitor - pour point depressant on wax deposition mitigation in a flow rig designed with 0 and 45-degree bends in the pipeline.
Standard laboratory techniques using high-temperature gas chromatography (HTGC), rheometer rig, polarized microscope and elution chromatography were employed to obtain n-paraffin distribution, oil viscosity, WAT, pour point and SARA fractions. Series of experimentation were carried out with and without the inhibitor in a straight pipe test section. The severity of wax deposition in the pipeline built-in with a 45-degree bend is compared with a straight pipe. The blended inhibitor was tested at concentrations of 500, 1000, and 1500-ppm, under laminar and turbulent conditions. The crude oil sample was found to be naturally waxy with wax content of 19.75wt%, n-paraffin distributions ranges from C15-C74, WAT and pour point of 30°C and 25°C respectively. The severity of wax deposition in the test section is 43% higher in 45-degree bend compared to straight pipe. However, the severity of the deposition was reduced to 12.3% at extremely low temperature and flow rate. Nonetheless, better inhibition performance was achieved at 25 and 30°C. The wax thickness was reduced from
In the upstream production systems, the external corrosion management typically does not affect the definition of the whole gathering network system design. However, its role is crucial for the integrity of any steel structure.
The external corrosion is generally managed with external coatings or cathodic protection systems designed to provide a durable protection against corrosive environments (either onshore or offshore). Typical external coating materials are polypropylene, polyethylene (in case of polyolefin coating), fusion bounded epoxy (FBE) or, in specific applications, thermal sprayed aluminium (TSA).
In High Pressure and High Temperature (HP/HT) reservoir applications, usually located in deepwaters offshore where the ambient temperatures are low (i.e. high temperature gradient between inside the pipelines and external environment), the selection of a specific external coating material might have significant impact on the design specification of the installed hardware, with special focus on the pipelines. In fact, depending on different physical properties of the external coating technologies, those may introduce stronger or weaker insulating capabilities and will modify the pipelines U Value, which describes the capacity of the pipelines to exchange heat with the external environment (and consequently the design specification of the production network).
A Case Study is here presented where impacts on the pipeline design specifications based on the selection of different external coating technologies have been described. In particular, it is here shown how the application of coating materials with lower insulating performance, e.g FBE coating, can increase the heat exchange between the hot production fluid and the cold external environment, leading to faster cooldown of production fluid.
In this case, reduction in operating fluid temperature has been used to prevent internal corrosion issues (generally linked to top of the line corrosion), however it may also be used as mitigation of HP/HT related issues, e.g. lateral buckling. Main pros and cons of FBE applied as a standalone external anticorrosion coating have been described in this paper.
The Vega subsea field in Norway has been producing successfully using a continuous Mono Ethylene Glycol (MEG) injection, topped up with corrosion inhibition means. A topside reclamation process allows reuse of MEG, however, limits the possibilities to produce saline water. In order to manage wells producing saline formation water and to increase ultimate recovery, a new flow assurance and integrity philosophy without continuous MEG injection is considered. This paper describes the options on hydrate as well as integrity management and the modifications both on the subsea and topside facilities required to enable an operational philosophy change. This change of the operational philosophy appears feasible, using either timely depressurization or Low Dosage Hydrate Inhibitors (LDHI) as well as a film building corrosion inhibitor in the system.
We all identify the need to integrate climate change into corporate strategy, with a profitable Carbon Capture Utilisation & Storage (CCUS) business model the elusive goal. Today, CCUS forms 10% of the R&D program of Total, a founding contributor to the OGCI Climate Investments fund. Here in the North East of Scotland, UK and Scottish Governments, along with project developer Pale Blue Dot Energy and Total are providing match funding to the European Commission’s Connecting Europe Facilities fund to progress feasibility work on the Acorn CCS project. As society continues to drive an expectation beyond hydrocarbons, what proposal might the North East of Scotland offer in response?
To meet ambitious emissions reduction targets, the UK must envisage radical changes to the energy economy. Already affecting power generation, these changes must drive further into transport and domestic/industrial energy consumption. Two technologies which may play a part in the decarbonisation of the UK energy business are CCUS and the use of Hydrogen as an energy carrier and energy store, with several studies showing that clean hydrogen is potentially the lowest cost route to meeting UK emission targets in multiple sectors. This builds on the UK’s world class gas network infrastructure, which can be repurposed to avoid becoming stranded, avoiding the enormous expense of increasing the capacity of the electricity transmission network, much of which would lie idle during the summer. The UK gas network carries approximately three times more energy than the electricity network, at one third the unit cost to consumers, and meets winter peaks that are five times greater.
Different to previous CCUS projects, and having the Oil and Gas Authority (OGA)’s first carbon dioxide appraisal and storage licence award, ACORN is an opportunity to evaluate a brownfield CCUS solution to capture, transport and store post-combustion CO2, combined with an upside through emerging pre-combustion CO2 capture technology relating to the production and sale of bulk hydrogen produced from natural gas with a zero-emission target. Located at the St Fergus Gas Terminal – an active industrial site where around 35% of all the natural gas used in the UK comes onshore. ACORN is designed as a "low-cost", "low-risk" CCUS project, to be built quickly, taking advantage of existing oil and gas infrastructure and well understood offshore storage sites. The Acorn Hydrogen project undertakes to evaluate and develop an advanced reformation process which will deliver the most energy and cost-efficient industrial hydrogen production process whilst capturing and sequestering CO2 emissions. An initial phase offers a full-chain demonstration project, an essential step toward commissioning the concept and subsequent commercialisation of large-scale CCUS and Hydrogen deployment in the UK.
SPE Offshore Europe represents an ideal opportunity to update both the region and industry on results, observations, and conclusions with respect to the evolving development architecture, selected process technologies, Government and gas transportation regulatory engagement as this, the leading Scottish CCS project continues its journey toward a final investment decision.
Shell in the UK has a vast network of more than 200 pipelines & umbilicals covering some 3000 kilometres. Historically, Shell has executed Side Scan Sonar Surveys along these pipelines using a Remotely Operated Towed Vehicle and subsequently followed up with ROV based surveys & inspections. However, in 2018, the respective Geomatics & Subsea Maintenance / Pipelines Departments decided to take advantage of new & emerging innovative technologies and compiled a minimal technical scope & tender document to tap into the latest that the market could offer. Consequently, Shell UK awarded DeepOcean (Norway) with a contract for their "Fast Digital Imaging Service" and embarked on a 45 day survey campaign. In 2019, the same subsea inspection project will be executed once again and the lessons learned ought to inspire and excite many different disciplines and communities, both internally within Shell and externally e.g OGA - Oil & Gas Authority & other valued stakeholders. The paper highlights the key technologies that were deployed and how the new deliverables & business insights take us down the road to Digitalisation including scope for future Machine Learning & Automation processes. Challenges arising from the acquisition and managing the associated data sets shall also be discussed. The speaker will spark dialogue at the end by asking the respective communities how robotics and artificial intelligence will change the industry landscape?
Lee Allford (Energy Institute) It is estimated that more than 120 platforms with a combined weight of more than 1 million tonnes will be decommissioned over the next 10 years in the North Sea alone. This will involve a significant number of personnel engaged offshore in potentially hazardous operations during the removal of these facilities, underlining the need for ensuring high standards of process safety within the associated decommissioning projects. The need for effective management of process safety during decommissioning was highlighted in the major structural collapse incident at the Didcot power station in the UK in 2016 that resulted in 4 fatalities. This together with the fact that the police and HSE are conducting a joint investigation to consider corporate manslaughter, gross negligence manslaughter and health and safety offences, highlights the gravity of getting it wrong. With support from the Energy Institute and cross-industry involvement from oil companies, contracting companies and the UK Safety Regulator, new guidance has been developed that will support those engaged in decommissioning offshore facilities to plan, design and execute their projects so as to manage risk from major accident hazards (Energy Institute, 2019). This paper presents the key elements of this guidance which provides a roadmap to managing process safety across the lifecycle of a decommissioning project, from initiation through execution. The guidance is set-out according to typical phases of a decommissioning project, providing useful insights into key process safety considerations, objectives, tasks and outputs.
A US appeals court overturned a district court’s preliminary injunction that prevented construction on part of Energy Transfer Partners' Bayou Bridge crude oil pipeline in the Atchafalaya Basin of Louisiana. The Texas Supreme Court ruled late in April that the Railroad Commission of Texas, the state’s oil and gas regulator, does not have exclusive jurisdiction over environmental contamination cases, which can be settled in court.