Production and drilling activities in offshore installation are one of the most necessary activities of human society. To drill a subsea well and raise the crude oil to a platform, by itself, presents a series of risks. Associated with this activity, when the crude oil reaches the topside of the platform, there are a number of operations that prepare the oil and gas to be exported to land by pipelines or oil tanker vessels, which involves equipment and process that take high temperatures, high pressure and high flow rates. Understanding the dynamics of the factors that can affect the interaction of operators with all these offshore complex systems is critical, because the loss of control of these systems can cause serious accidents, resulting in injuries to workers, environmental damage, loss of production and geopolitical crises. Accidents in the oil and gas offshore installations, such as drilling rigs and FPSOs, can have tragic consequences and all efforts should be targeted to prevent its recurrence. Therefore, from the perspective of current technological developments, it is essential to consider the influence of Human Factors in the risk management of offshore industrial plants.
Nguyen, Dzu (BP) | Macleod, Innis (BP) | Taylor, Donald (BP) | Murray, Laurence (BP) | Zavyalov, Denis (BP) | Booth, Dave (Fircroft Consultant, former BP) | Robertson, Neil (Halliburton) | Smith, Robert (Halliburton) | Joubran, Jonathon (Halliburton) | Allen, Clifford (Halliburton) | Shafei, Sharil Mohd (Halliburton)
The multiple zone water injection project (MZWIP) was initiated to deliver the following key objectives: deliver zonal injection with conformance control and reliable sand management across the major layered sands of the Balakhany unconsolidated reservoirs in the BP operated Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli (ACG) fields in Azerbaijan sector of the Caspian Sea.
Three years after MZWIP implementation, six wells with a total of 14 zones are injecting at required rates with zonal rate live-reporting. To achieve this multizone injection facility, the requirement for a standard ACG sand-control injector design was discounted and a non-standard sand management control technique developed using a cased & perforated (C&P) and downhole flow-control system (DHFC). During this program, BP ACG has successfully installed the world's first 10kpsi three-zone inline variable-choke DHFC wells with distributed temperature sensors (DTS) across all target injection zones.
The choking DHFC provides flexibility in operations and delivers the right rates to the right zones. The DTS provides conformance surveillance, fracture assessment, caprock integrity and sand ingress monitoring capability. A customized topside logic control system provides an automatic shutin of interval control valves (ICVs) during planned or unplanned shutins to stop crossflow and sand ingress and is the primary method of effectively managing sanded annuli.
The development of this MZWI solution has significantly changed the Balakhany development plan and has been quickly expanded across five ACG platforms. Accessing 2nd and 3rd zones in the same wellbore, this C&P DHFC well design is accelerating major oil volumes and will significantly reduce future development costs, maximizing wellbore utility in a slot-constrained platform.
By use of the proposed method for digitilizing operation procedures and activities, the rig action plan can become the dynamic information exchange platform between planning and execution phase. Digitilizing the workflow and structuring the information in a rig action plan enables engineers to plan operations and transmit procedures and related parameters in a consistent form applicable to the driller and the drilling control system's automation platform. The paper reviews existing rig action plans and activities to demonstrate how structuring of information using the new methodology allows planned procedures to be readable by a drilling automation platform. A new data structure with multiple activity levels is proposed for the rig action plan. The requirements and concept of a new application program interface (API) is discussed. The result of applying the proposed methodology to an actual rig action plan is presented along with an overview of a pilot project. The benefits of digitalizing the workflow and implementing an open, structured, machine readable rig action plan demonstrate how the new approach will contribute to the oil and gas technologies ambition to automate operation.
Esteves Aranha, Pedro (Petrobras) | Abensur Gandelman, Roni (Petrobras) | Henrique Martins dos Santos, Pedro (Petrobras) | Borella Hougaz, Augusto (Petrobras) | Gomes Clemente, Ricardo (Intelie) | Dumlao, Vincent (Intelie) | Henrique Santos Teixeira, Pedro (Intelie) | Mazzi, Vitor (Intelie)
The act of planning a well is a collaborative effort taking disparate data from various groups and synthesizing it into one overarching program. Each operator follows its own well design process, but common to each operator is the fact that wells not designed wholly in series, but rather have many parallel sections, with a set of decision gates and countless data interdependencies. The goal of this paper is to detail the successful development and implementation of an integrated planning platform within a National Oil Company.
The individual components of well design process are not performed in a vacuum. The various inputs / outputs from one application affect the inputs/ outputs of applications both upstream and downstream of it, along the design process. This is addressed by facilitating integration and analysis of data input / output from each component of the planning process, synthesizing it, and performing automated system-integrity and overall conformity checks between the interdependent components. Any changes to an individual design component that affect other areas must be flagged, notifying the appropriate parties. Defining and automating workflows, mapping data interdependencies within the workflows, and creating a system of data governance are also keys to building an efficient planning platform. Similar to a navigation program which is able to determine an optimal driving route by considering various dynamic and static data points, the implemented platform uses a data-adaptive approach to well planning. Using this method, it takes unstructured data processes, decision trees, data integration protocols, and automates them while also permitting users to collaborate on well planning and design, allowing the standardization of processes. Operators are able to embed their particular methods of well design into the software platform and thus ensure that all of their company meet the specific requirements. Key to the effectiveness and longevity of this type of platform is a neutral data repository. Allowing data to be free of any singular data protocol ensures that although individual applications may revised, replaced, or put into competition with one another, the format of the data produced as well as ingested by these applications stays constant. Data will remain mapped, both in terms of overall process workflow and interdependencies. This paper is beneficial to any operator wishing to gain insight in developing a forward thinking of a digital strategy for well planning and design. However, the use of these types of methods and development of a similarly integrated platform an operator can standardize processes, enforce and ensure data governance, as well as gain efficiency in overall planning time.
Weight control is critical in platforms of offshore oil fields and wind farms. Each engineering discipline is responsible to design their respective system with weight optimization as an important goal. This paper explores the various avenues that are available in electrical system design, that can contribute to weight reduction in an offshore structure.
Suncor's Firebag Project is one of the largest steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects in the world. As a powerful tool for decision-making in the field, the Firebag SAGD reservoir simulation platform is based on an in-depth understanding of physics that controls thermal recovery process and meets the need for a practical solution. In this platform, standardized inputs and workflows are developed, and a good agreement with field data is achieved for all Firebag SAGD operating pads with production history. The Firebag SAGD reservoir simulation platform promotes the capacity to address existing Firebag SAGD challenges, capture unique Firebag reservoir features, and support reservoir management and future pad development.
Partnerships with big tech, tech startups, and innovative service companies--and the merging of their data, cloud, and software applications--are proving essential for operators in the scaling phase of digital deployment. Equinor has been among the first of many international oil companies to actively seek out and form such alliances. The Norwegian operator is in the process of leveraging its massive collection of data by making it accessible both inside and outside the company to improve its next generation of upstream projects--a task so big that it certainly cannot go it alone. "The challenge is not what data to share but to define the rules of the game for how to share [the data]," said Anders Opedal, Equinor executive vice president of technology, projects, and drilling, during the recent Halliburton Landmark Innovation Forum and Expo (LIFE 2019) in Houston. To overcome the industry's inclination toward data protectionism, Equinor became a founding member of the Open Subsurface Data Universe (OSDU) initiative, a global collaboration between most of the world's largest operators and service firms to define standards for an open-data architecture for subsurface data.
The Netherlands YEPP made a field trip to Total E&P Nederland's Zuidwal gas platform in the Waddenzee (a tidal area in the north of The Netherlands) in February 2004. Participants were given a tour of Total's gas treatment center in Harlingen, including a view of the control room that monitors all of Total's Netherlands operations. It was a pleasant and sunny winter day for most of the boat trip, and our hosts looked after us well. Lijs Groenendaal, SPE section board member and one of our Total hosts, gave a comprehensive talk about Zuidwal's history and development. In 1969, Elf Petroland B.V. was granted an exploration license for the Zuidwal area.
The Aberdeen young professionals (YPs) group kicked off its 2007–08 technical-events calendar with a presentation on the increasingly important subsea- production sector given by Paul Tooms, global head of Subsea Technology for BP. Tooms was featured in the most recent edition of the The Way Ahead in the Technical Leader series interview. Addressing the Aberdeen YPs, Tooms gave an overview of his BP career of more than 30 years, which has spanned five continents. He described the wide scope of subsea engineering and went on to analyze global subsea investment trends, pointing to a relatively flat projection for capital expenditure on floating production platforms (e.g., spars; tension-leg platforms; and floating production, storage, and offloading systems). However, in comparison, subsea well count is expected to double by 2012, with increasing emphasis on subsea tiebacks to maximize investment on existing production units.
The young professional (YP) group of the SPE Netherlands Section is having a busy and exciting year. One of the biggest achievements of the section was the startup of two new student chapters at Utrecht University and VU University, Amsterdam. The increased input of students and the increasing numbers of YPs have boosted lectures and created a great atmosphere with excellent networking opportunities. The section organizes monthly lectures from companies active in the Netherlands for YPs and students. The topics covered this year, and their presenters, included the latest logging-while-drilling technologies, by Eric Shearer, Halliburton; the art of workovers, by Lex de Groot, GDF Suez; the upstream strategy of NUON, by Arnoud Kamerbeek, NUON; and the Bergermeer field, by Jan-Thijs de Keijser.