Pipeline pigs are devices that are placed inside the pipe and traverse the pipeline. Pigs may be used in hydrostatic testing and pipeline drying, internal cleaning, internal coating, liquid management, batching, and inspection. Figure 1 shows several types of pipeline pigs. The pig is inserted ahead of the fill point, and water is pumped behind the pig to keep the pipe full of water and force air out ahead of the pig. Pigs are then used to remove the test waters and to dry the pipeline.
Momot, Fabien (PathControl) | Humbled, François (RMI) | Garbers, Martin (TOTAL SA) | Shabanov, Sergey (TOTAL SA) | Gonsette, Alexandre (RMI) | Sikal, Anas (PathControl) | Cousso, Olivier (TOTAL SA) | Reynaud, Denis (PathControl)
Improvements in measurement while drilling (MWD) and service reliability over the past 25 years has made MWD tools the most cost-effective method for calculating wellbore survey position while drilling. However, with more complex well trajectories required to reach more challenging targets, reducing lateral uncertainty has also become a new challenge.
It is accepted that no geomagnetic model can properly account for the geomagnetic spatial and temporal local complexity for calculating MWD geomagnetic reference values. It is also well known that measuring local geomagnetic reference requires frequent absolute measurements in order to perform QA/QC, and that those absolute measurements could only be done manually so far, and consequently very few magnetic observatories are in operation. Therefore, solutions have been engineered to enhance the geomagnetic reference model with In-Field Referencing (commonly termed as IFR). Then, its combination with Multi-Station Analysis (MSA) correction algorithms has become a common method for addressing and reducing most of the correctable MWD azimuth, survey position error and lateral uncertainty.
Enhanced wellbore positioning could be a real game changer to achieve in-fill wells with high collision avoidance constraints, to develop projects that require high precision to hit the reservoir targets, or those located in specifically difficult areas, from a geomagnetic perspective, such as high latitudes and zones with crustal anomalies.
This paper presents the results of the new temporal magnetic field method "IFR4D" that was successfully used to drill two onshore wells in Argentina. The wells targeted the Vaca Muerta shale play, and demonstrated the ability to improve the wells absolute positioning while reducing the lateral aspect of "ellipse of uncertainty" by a combination of: A unique autonomous, remote real-time observatory developed to monitor and allow corrections for the local geomagnetic vector with frequent absolute control of the local and temporal geomagnetic vector field (Dip, Declination and Field Intensity), and A dedicated MSA algorithm defined to use local and temporal In-Field Referencing (IFR2) data at the position and time for each MWD survey station.
A unique autonomous, remote real-time observatory developed to monitor and allow corrections for the local geomagnetic vector with frequent absolute control of the local and temporal geomagnetic vector field (Dip, Declination and Field Intensity), and
A dedicated MSA algorithm defined to use local and temporal In-Field Referencing (IFR2) data at the position and time for each MWD survey station.
Once installed on location, the autonomous observatory measured all geomagnetic properties (Dip, Declination and Field Intensity) with no personnel onsite for more than one year, delivering a new level of geomagnetic accuracy to use as the standard reference for the life-time of the field. The data from the observatory was then used remotely while drilling to correct and optimize wellbore position and reduce the lateral aspects of the "ellipse of uncertainty" (EOU).
R., Roberto Carmona (Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering (KRISO)) | Kim, Young-Shik (Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering (KRISO)) | Sung, Hong Gun (Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering (KRISO))
Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels for offshore operations use a Dynamic Positioning system (DP), which includes a controller to correct the position variation of the FPSO subject to internal and external disturbances. Most of these positioning systems use a classic Proportional Integral Derivative controllers (PID) and their deferent variants, where the control law is determined adjusting three control gains: proportional, integral and derivative, usually heuristic techniques are employed to determine the control gains. In this study we propose a theoretical tuning procedure in order to determine the control gains in a simple way, analyzing the boundary conditions in the matrices of the FPSO dynamic model, as well as the relation they have with the control gains for the FPSO motion in an adjust domain. In order to guarantee the semi-global stability of the closed-loop system, a stability proof in the Lyapunov sense is carried out. The theoretical results were validated in numerical simulations using Matlab. These results show that the methodology presented in this work is highly satisfactory for the control gain selection in the trajectory tracking control problem for FPSO motion.
A Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system is considered in this paper. In the last two decades FPSOs have been the dominant offshore platforms used in oil and gas fields. Fig. 1 shows the Ta'Kuntah FPSO, which was the first FPSO operated in the Cantarell Field in the Gulf of Mexico. A FPSO can be operated in deep water and sometimes must perform maneuvering movements and marine activities with other vessels as shown in Fig. 2 (Tamuri, 2009), these activities involve huge risks due to the environmental random forces presence, affecting the normal operation and sometimes causing severe accidents (Moan, 2002) and lack stability (Chen, 2008). In offshore basically there are two ways to maintain the FPSO position, the first is by Mooring Positioning (MP) and the second by Dynamic Positioning (DP) (Sorensen, 1996; Sorensen, 1997). In DP the principal advantage is the immediate positioning on a required set point, in other hand the MP systems are limited to operate about 500m (Veksler, 2016).
Kim, Kihun (Korea Research Institute of Ships & Ocean Engineering (KRISO)) | Yoon, Suk-Min (Korea Research Institute of Ships & Ocean Engineering (KRISO)) | Lee, Chong-Moo (Korea Research Institute of Ships & Ocean Engineering (KRISO))
This paper introduces the Light-weight Work Class ROV URI-L for underwater construction. And the design and implementation of an underwater precision navigation system and dynamic positioning system that is essential for the underwater construction, position maintenance control, path tracking control and precision mapping are described. In this study, to develop an underwater precise navigation system which is the key technology in the operation of underwater robot, USBL, DVL and FOG sensor data are fused to realize a fast and accurate navigation system with high update rate. The developed navigation and DP algorithm was verified by a sea trial test.
KRISO is currently conducting a sixth year research project on ROV development for underwater light work to support underwater construction projects. The production of ROV URI-L for light work was completed as shown in Fig. 1, and an underwater precision navigation algorithm was developed and verified by the November sea trial test in order to develop and verify precision mapping, automatic control technology, and smart ROV operation technology.
In this project, KRISO has been developing underwater robots in the past, and it has been improving the control performance of ROVs with the production company Red One Technology. It is equipped with intelligent algorithms that are easy to operate by main pilots, navigators and supervisors. We are trying to implement a smart ROV system.
It is a high-performance underwater robot that uses multi-beam imaging sonar and forward looking scanning sonar to easily recognize the surrounding environment even in turbid water of the bad sight.
The URI-L weighs about 1.5 tons in air and is ballasted slightly positive buoyancy in water. In order for the ROV to operate freely at a depth of 400m or more, a cage-type TMS (Tether Management System) as shown in Fig.2 is required. The TMS is a home-like type of ROV with a weight of about 1.5 tons. It separates the movement of the ship excited by the wave so as not to affect the ROV.
In addition, the underwater precise and continuous navigation system up to 10Hz that can be considered as the strength of this research is very helpful for the implementation of the precise dynamic positioning control system.
You have access to this full article to experience the outstanding content available to SPE members and JPT subscribers. To ensure continued access to JPT's content, please Sign In, JOIN SPE, or Subscribe to JPT Marine mining initiatives open a new field of subsea operations. Offshore oil and gas sites are still located primarily in areas where divers can support maintenance and repair requirements, but future marine mining will take place in greater depths and with a complexity of machines that requires support from robotic systems equipped with a substantial amount of artificial intelligence (AI). Technologies are being developed that have the potential to support marine mining in all stages from prospection to decommissioning. These developments will likely have substantial influence in the oil and gas industry, itself searching for ways to maximize exploitation of assets.
Santos, Hugo (Petrobras) | Paz, Paulo (Petrobras) | Kretli, Igor (Petrobras) | Reis, Ney (Petrobras) | Pinto, Hardy (Petrobras) | Galassi, Maurício (Petrobras) | Pozzani, Daniel (Petrobras) | Lanzilotta, Alessandro (Petrobras) | Castro, Bruno (Petrobras) | Ferreira, André (Petrobras) | Thomé, Lincoln (Petrobras) | Beal, Valter (Senai CIMATEC)
This paper proposes the development of an autonomous robot for rigless well interventions in order to reduce costs by avoiding the need of a rig to do so, especially for light workover operations in offshore locations. It also presents experimental tests performed in a laboratory string and in a test well in order to evaluate the feasibility of this technology.
Gutiérrez Carrilero, Susana (Halliburton) | Holmes, Anne (Halliburton) | Hinz, David (Halliburton) | Wang, Jiaxin (Halliburton) | Crawford, Jeffrey (Halliburton) | Stockhausen, Ed (Chevron) | Wang, Haijing (Chevron)
Using positive displacement motors with alternating slide and rotate drilling modes to control the well trajectory, along with standard 90-ft surveys and single-detector azimuthal gamma ray (GR) tools, have proven to be inadequate. To overcome these issues, a new method has been developed that combines continuous measurements and uses a fourdetector azimuthal GR tool. The bottomhole assembly (BHA) used here is equipped with two inclinometer packages and a fourdetector azimuthal GR logging-while-drilling (LWD) tool. A high-resolution survey is calculated using a combination of the two continuous inclination survey data sets for the deeper portion of the well and the stationary survey data from the shallow (low inclination) portion of the well, which provides a more accurate well path that better reflects the TVD positioning of the wellbore. The four-detector azimuthal GR tool is used to generate high-quality wellbore images, both while sliding and rotating. This enables more accurate structural dip angles to be determined from the continuous GR images. It also leads to better stratigraphic and structural positioning of the wellbore and a better understanding of changes in stratigraphy across the length the lateral section. Combining more accurate surveys with complete GR images and more accurate dip picking enables a better determination of the stratigraphic position of the wellbore and its path through stratigraphic layers. The wellbore can be divided into various up-and down-drilled sections that can be compared side-by-side using true vertical thickness (TVT) methods to show lateral continuity of the beds.
This article, written by JPT Technology Editor Chris Carpenter, contains highlights of paper OTC 29069, “How AI and Robotics Can Support Marine Mining,” by Peter Kampman, Leif Christensen, Martin Fritsche, Christopher Gaudig, Hendrik Hanff, and Marc Hildrebrandt, German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI), and Frank Kirchner, DFKI and University of Bremen, prepared for the 2018 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 30 April–4 May. The paper has not been peer reviewed. Copyright 2018 Offshore Technology Conference. Reproduced by permission.
Marine mining initiatives open a new field of subsea operations. Offshore oil and gas sites are still located primarily in areas where divers can support maintenance and repair requirements, but future marine mining will take place in greater depths and with a complexity of machines that requires support from robotic systems equipped with a substantial amount of artificial intelligence (AI). Technologies are being developed that have the potential to support marine mining in all stages from prospection to decommissioning. These developments will likely have substantial influence in the oil and gas industry, itself searching for ways to maximize exploitation of assets.
Under Current Development Increasing Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) Intelligence. Commercial off-the-shelf AUVs rely mostly on acoustic and inertial sensors for their navigation. Speed measurements from a Doppler velocity log are combined with orientation values from gyroscopes and accelerometers to estimate current position. These updates are sometimes augmented by absolute-position fixes from an ultrashort baseline system. However, during such a mission, the inspection assets might not be located exactly at their expected positions. This might be because of incorrect positioning during installation, objects being dragged off location by fishermen, or sediments hiding a pipeline gradually from the view of standard sensors. Therefore, equipping modern AUVs with sensors and software that can search for, detect, track, and re acquire inspection targets is essential.
In addition, classical sensor suites consisting of cameras and sonars can be augmented with higher-resolution 3D sensing such as laser-line projectors (structured light). This enables an AUV’s onboard software to create a millimeter-precision 3D model of the asset, which can be compared with computer-aided-design models or previous-inspection-run data. By using a fully automated 3D-model cross-check, the AUV could detect asset deformations, defects, or marine growth, even while still submerged during the inspection run.
Seafloor AUV Support Infrastructure. Current AUVs have limited endurance, mostly because of limited battery capacity. Depending on the sensor suite, on-board data-storage space also can be a limiting factor. This causes AUV missions to run no longer than a few days at most, depending on AUV size and shape, propulsion, sensor efficiency, and environmental conditions in the deployment area.
Tanaka, Kiyotaka (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)) | Yoshida, Hiroshi (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)) | Ishibashi, Shojiro (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)) | Sugesawa, Makoto (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC))
The situation of in underwater and the bottom of the sea and the technical development it's possible to monitor continually in the long-term are performed in recent years. In order to realize a long-term monitoring system using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), a technology to charge an AUV battery in underwater is necessary. We are developing the underwater non-contact recharging technology which is necessary to recharge the AUV's battery in the underwater. In this presentation, we will describe the outline result and future plan of the evaluation test of recharging for the battery mounted on the actual AUV. We recharged the battery mounted on the AUV by non-contact power transmission and confirmed that the charging mode will be switched automatically when the voltage of the battery reaches the prescribed voltage. In addition, we did measurement of the transmission efficiency and transmission electric power when charging the battery. As a future plan, we are going to carry out an evaluation examination in the underwater more than 200m in depth.
Long-term operation of AUV is required to conduct exploration underwater efficiently. In the underwater exploration using the current AUV, it was necessary to pick up the AUV for each dive and to retrieve the observation data and recharge the battery. Therefore, much time and expense are required. In order to solve such a situation, tanaka and others devised a composite observation system underwater as shown in Fig.1. (Tanaka, Yoshida, Ishibashi, Ohta, Frank, and Sugesawa, 2016) In order to realize the underwater composite observation system, it is necessary to charge the AUV battery in underwater and to collect observation data. In this paper, we introduce the development status of underwater recharging station (URS) for recharging AUV’s battery in underwater. By constructing this technology, we believe that the operational form of AUV will expand and that efficient underwater observation will be realized. For example, it is possible to suspend the recharging launcher in underwater from the mother vessel to recharge the AUV's battery. The power supply to the URS is supplied from the ground base or the mother vessel using the power cable. However, development of tidal current power generation, wave power generation(Townsend., Shenoi, 2013) and the like is progressing. The observation system can be applied by combining with these power generation systems.
Chen, Yihua (Shanghai Jiaotong University) | Chen, Xinquan (Shanghai Jiaotong University) | Yang, Qi (Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Underwater Engineering Institute Co., Ltd) | Ding, Jinhong (Shanghai Jiaotong University)
Dynamic positioning system is normally used to anchor the wind turbine installation vessel (WTIV) before the unloading of jacking-up legs. The thruster assisted mooring system of WTIV is discussed in this paper, and the positioning capability is compared with dynamic positioning system and mooring system. The vessel motion, mooring line tension and thruster force are gained through time domain simulation. Failure mode and effect analysis is carried out considering the influence of one line failure and one thruster failure. This paper proves the advantage of thruster assisted mooring system applied in the WTIV.
Wind power is one of the most promising renewable power sources that is conductive to solving energy and environment problems. Compared with onshore wind power, the offshore wind sources have larger amount, steadier speed as well as less impact on human society like noise or visual pollution (Han et al. 2009). Developing offshore wind turbines to utilize wind energy in deep water has consequently been the focus of new energy exploitation industry. Wind turbine installation vessels (WTIV) are specifically designed for the transportation, installation and maintenance of wind turbines. The self-elevated and self-propelled WTIV are widely used in the offshore wind farm construction with high efficiency and large deck load capacity.
WTIV are normally equipped with dynamic positioning (DP) system to anchor the vessel before the unloading of legs, after which WTIV are lifted out of water on jack-up legs creating a stable operating platform (Jo et al. 2013). Sufficient DP capability as well as transit speed are the two main goals in the design of propulsion system of WTIV (Krüger1 and Vorhölter2012). Augencer and Vorhölter (2013) introduced an approach to decide the second order wave forces based on the potential theory to compute the DP capability in the preliminary design of a WTIV. Huang (2012) and Tu (2016) carried out DP capability calculation of WTIV considering the thruster failure mode.