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TÜV SÜD National Engineering Laboratory (NEL) has launched a joint industry project (JIP) that will support regulatory authorities and industry to establish new standards and practices for the use of online oil-in-water (OIW) analyzers at remote locations. The outcome from the JIP aims to provide confidence in using the analyzers for produced water discharge reporting at unmanned and manned sites. Guidance for the use of the analyzers was first developed in 2005, with manned installations in mind, and was not verified in the field. This JIP will build on a previous NEL initiative (2019–2020), involving six operators and the UK regulator, the Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS). The initiative kicked off in October 2019 and ran for more than 9 months.
Some Texas leaders and oil and gas industry advocates have for years promoted the idea that produced water--the waste water generated through oil and gas development--has a role to play in meeting broad water needs in the state. However, the state has a limited understanding of the chemicals in this waste water and how programs to reuse it outside the oil field could be practiced safely, if at all. Acknowledging the necessity to better understand treatment needs, economic challenges, and public health and environmental risks of industry's waste water, the Texas Legislature recently passed Senate Bill 601, establishing a Texas Produced Water Consortium. The consortium will be housed at Texas Tech University and will bring together a wide swath of agency advisors, technical experts, and key stakeholders to consider these issues and produce a report with recommendations over the next year. The group is charged with suggesting legal and regulatory changes to better enable beneficial uses, identifying pilot projects and assessing the economics of using produced water both efficiently but also in a way that protects public health and the environment.
In situations in which two different waters are being mixed, it is desirable to measure the amounts of each in the mixed stream. If the capability exists, it is desirable to look at each constituent to see if it undergoes any phenomenon other than simple mixing. This can be a powerful technique for detecting water/rock reactions that can lead to formation damage. The fundamental concept is that mixing two waters should result in the volume-weighted average of each constituent of the two original waters, unless some chemical or biological reaction occurred. This is essentially similar in appearance to a binary phase diagram, with the endpoints of the line defined by the concentrations of the constituent in each of the water streams being mixed.
Total dissolved solids in a quantity of liquid. Mineral material suspended or dissolved in solution which passes a standard glass filter and 0.45 1-1m filter and does not evaporate below 180 C. TDS is generally used as a gross indicator of the mass of dissolved salts in a solution, but the analytical method is subject to interferences from colloidal material. Total dissolved solids in a quantity of liquid. Mineral material suspended or dissolved in solution which passes a standard glass filter and 0.45 1-1m filter and does not evaporate below 180 C. TDS is generally used as a gross indicator of the mass of dissolved salts in a solution, but the analytical method is subject to interferences from colloidal material.
Abstract The use of freshwater, near freshwater, or treated water in hydraulic fracturing represents an ever-increasing cost in the Permian Basin. Environmental concerns add to the pressure to develop methods to use significantly higher volumes of produced water in hydraulic fracture fluids. To solve the challenge of viscosifying untreated, high total dissolved solids water a move was made away from organic-based viscosifiers to silica-based technology. Fumed silica is highly effective as a viscosifier for high-density brines that has demonstrated excellent low-end rheology, exceptional suspending ability, and a nominal filter cake. However, the high cost of fumed silica and operational challenges have precluded commercial adoption. This paper describes thatsimilar rheology is achievable at a fraction of the cost using a silica gel. The focus of the paper is on the field trials in West Texas where untreated produced water was viscosified with silica gel and run as alternatives to a standard 20 lb/Mgal crosslinked guar fluid made with fresh water. Low cost and operational efficiencies were obtained bypreparingthe silica gel on-location using standard and readily available hydraulic fracturing equipment. Procedures for making the silica gel-based frac fluid were similar to those of making a crosslinked guar fluid. Field trials have demonstrated that silica-gel carries high loadings of 20/40 mesh sand even at low pump rates. Production data from the trials has varied from exceeding expectations to being similar to existing production results.On a chemical cost basis, silica gel is comparable to a borate-cross-linked guar frac fluid. The economics tip very much in favor of silica gel when factoring in the savings using untreated produced water.
John, Blevins (Hibernia Resources) | Van Domelen, Mark (Downhole Chemical Solutions) | West, Zach (Downhole Chemical Solutions) | Rall, Jason (Downhole Chemical Solutions) | Wakefield, Drake (Downhole Chemical Solutions)
Abstract Since the early development of unconventional resource plays, slickwater fracturing fluids have expanded rapidly and are now the most common type of fluid system used in the industry. Slickwater and viscosifying friction reducer (VFR) fluids consist of polyacrylamide (PAM) polymers and are typically delivered to location in a liquid form such as a suspension or emulsion in a hydrocarbon-based carrier fluid. Recently, advances in dry powder delivery operations have provided unique advantages over the liquid versions of FRs including cost savings and improved health, safety and environmental (HSE) aspects. This paper describes the dry powder delivery process and describes the advantages that this new technology has brought to field operations. The method involves delivering polyacrylamide powder for slickwater fracturing treatments directly into the source water on location, thereby eliminating the use of liquid polymer slurries or emulsions. Liquid friction reducers typically contain 20-30% active polymer loading, with the remaining volume being the carrier fluid to keep the polymer in suspension. By delivering 100% powder, several benefits are gained including elimination of truck deliveries of FR liquids to location, reduction of total chemical volumes by 70-80%, reduction of spill hazards, and lower overall chemical costs. Different powders are available for various applications including the use of fresh or produced water, and viscosifying or non-viscosifying polymers. The key technology for "dry on the fly" (DOTF) operations is the powder delivery equipment. Due to the different molecular structures between polyacrylamide and guar polymers, delivering PAM is more technically challenging than guar and requires much higher mixing energy to achieve proper dispersion and hydration. The delivery system described in this paper uses a unique technology which creates the necessary conditions for powder mixing and has been successfully applied on over 350 wells since early 2019, with over 7,000 tons of polymer delivered.
Abstract The Delaware Basin encompasses 6.4 million acres throughout Southeastern New Mexico and West Texas. With large players such as ExxonMobil, Shell or Oxy typically grabbing headlines, it's easy to forget the multitude of smaller public and private E&P operators who exist in and around the acreage positions of the aforementioned companies. Regardless of the size of the acreage holding, a consistent theme is that a typical horizontal well drilled and completed (D&C) will yield water cuts of 60-90% at any given period in its productive lifespan. Saltwater production, handling and disposal (SWD) is a drag on lease operating expenses (LOE). SWD costs via trucking, pipeline, or on-lease SWD wells can range between $0.50-$3.00/bbl. As existing infrastructure is exhausted, water handling costs have been projected to rise to over $5.00/bbl. Additionally, restricted access to SWD could cause production curtailments and thus impacting operators beyond direct LOE. Well completion operations are impacted by freshwater procurement costs starting around $0.75/bbl. Regardless of final frac design, water consumption during fracturing operations typically exceeds 500,000 bbls or $375,000 per well. Significant value exists for recycling produced water via an on-lease pit and utilizing it for future frac operations. The produced water turns into an asset if the operator can efficiently manage to substitute higher and higher percentages of freshwater with produced water. Many smaller operators (defined as less than 50,000 acres) may view produced water recycling as an operation best left to large E&P's with their massive capital budgets and contiguous acreage. Fortunately, even a 5 well, section development plan can yield returns from an on-lease produced water recycling program.