The term "safety" has become widespread, but since it is a big idea, it may result hard to grasp. In managing safety, the focus is often on accidents and incidents, however, serious events are infrequent and with them the occasions to learn. Learning focuses on everyday events can take place continuously rather than being a reaction to a single serious event. The aim has been to raise awareness of all our people and to provide them with tangible measurements of safety in absence of incidents. In this work it has been detailed a method to quantify monetary returns associated to the continuous identification, analysis and evaluation of risk and relevant controls, based on the fact that management is traditionally focused on financial goals and therefore more inclined to understand such sort of a language. Thus, it has been considered what a return on investment looks like in safety for transport operations. Based on evidences collected from our Business Units, a business case was developed where a disruption occurred in the operating activities due to some issues (i.e.
Originally developed as an enhanced entertainment technology, advancements in augmented and virtual hardware catapulted the development and adoption of these tools for industrial applications and, more recently, the oilfield. These tools have vast use potential—from training to solution creation to operations. The benefits of newly developed applications for rigsite virtual mapping and holographic model viewing and the improvements they introduce for service provider/operator collaboration are discussed.
Conventional methods for rig survey execution and optimization for separation solutions, which include solids control and waste management technologies, can be time consuming, technically challenging, and costly. This can be particularly true for offshore operations where weather, logistics, drilling programs, and environmental regulations can rapidly increase project complexity. Additionally, the equipment selection process commonly involves communication and collaboration with multiple subject matter experts (SMEs) and operator representatives globally in an iterative and labor-intensive process that lends itself to the opportunity for miscommunication and errors.
The preliminary use of rigsite virtual mapping and holographic model viewer applications is to demonstrate improvements to cross-organizational collaboration. Using rigsite virtual mapping allows specialists to conduct a rapid wide area scan (RWAS) to accurately map the rig space to create fully functional and scaled three-dimensional (3D) models that can be used in augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) to develop more robust visualization of system design and placement. Using rigsite virtual mapping allows the separations solutions team to more safely, efficiently, and accurately measure and scan a rig space to achieve the optimal equipment orientation and integration. The improved visual assets enable better alignment with operator teams.
Using the holographic model viewer allows 3D models of where separation equipment can be placed within the physical space at the rigsite or in the office. On location, rig surveys can be enhanced by enabling personnel to more effectively identify obstacles that might impede installation. For the office, the service provider and operators can more effectively discuss technologies and technology solutions using enhanced visualization. Bringing the technology "into the room" enables more dynamic solution creation and ideation.
A renowned global research and consulting firm lists AR/VR as a major emerging technology trend that has the capability to influence how companies do business. The application of these technologies can revitalize remote engineering collaboration and personnel optimization and reduce service/product delivery costs. Already successfully introduced in other markets, AR/VR in the oilfield has the potential to expand rapidly and become an essential tool for more efficient operations.
Importance of operations readiness and assurance, what it really is and how it is implemented are also elaborated briefly in this paper. OMV's has a well-defined operations readiness and assurance system in place with detailed guidelines and steps for its implementation in any project that exceeds the threshold value of 20 mn Euros. Projects of lesser value can also utilize the system at a smaller scale. The success of operations readiness and assurance implementation is only visible through the commissioning and into the operate phase of the project as this is the primary focus of the OR&A process. Ideally, a project should have a flawless startup and operation, however in the practical world some teething issues may appear during and after startup in major or complex projects even the ones in which OR&A is implemented. However as long as those teething issues are resolved soon and don't result in much production loss then the project can be termed to have had a relatively satisfactory implementation of operational readiness and assurance principles.
Production of Oil, Gas and Petrochemical from production units is becoming very competitive every day. As products are sold in open market, production cost drives an organization's profitability. To keep a plant available for production as much as possible, Asset Performance Management (APM) or Asset Integrity Management (AIM)is the key. Risk based inspection (RBI) is a decision making tool that deals with integrity management of static equipment and piping through focus on prioritizing inspection based on the risk.
Review of published guidelines for RBI such as API RP 580/581, ASME PCC3, DNV-RP-G101, EN 16991 etc., suggests that they provide either oversimplified or complex explanations which makes it difficult for beginners to grasp all the aspects that are critical for a successful RBI project. Therefore, this paper is aimed to provide and discuss the essential elements for effective RBI implementation project in a simplified way. RBI project can be divided into four major phases i.e project initiation and pre-requisites, workshops & trainings, RBI analysis phase and post RBI actions. Each of these stages is discussed with details in this paper.
An overview of successful RBI program used within the industry and from the ADNOC LNG RBI implementation experience, is provided with details. Project management approach for RBI program implementation is conveyed by dividing project into different phases and highlighting the inputs/outputs and activities for each phase. Objectives, time and resources such as data and personnel required, software features that are essential, project planning and monitoring are provided.
RBI program implemented efficiently in accordance with suggested plan, results in an overall optimization of inspection for static equipment/piping while maintaining their integrity as part of a broader APM or AIM strategy.
With the advent of the computerized 3D model environment, the engineering review process for complex process plants has improved dramatically, however, recent technological advances are facilitating the next step in productivity.
Typically, engineering companies conduct design reviews using a multidisciplinary panel of seasoned engineering experts to assess the safety and the utility of the design. The review is based upon a combination of traditional paper-based deliverables and on-screen views of the 3D model using conventional software tools, e.g. SP3D, PDMS and PDS. The Operations function is often not represented in the review phase at this early stage in the lifecycle of the asset.
By conducting two separate design review exercises, first using the conventional design review method followed by a review built around virtual reality (VR) immersion, we were able to demonstrate incremental benefits possible through the incorporation of VR technology. The identified benefits fell into two main categories, specifically identification of design deficiencies that: were not observable using traditional design review methods were overlooked by the traditional panel of expert reviewers
were not observable using traditional design review methods
were overlooked by the traditional panel of expert reviewers
Using VR technology, the immersive model review was provided in an intuitive format which allowed deeper understanding of the spatial context and allowed a more diverse team of field operatives and maintenance personnel to participate. The final design outcome was improved by the addition of practical insights from operations stakeholders who would otherwise have been excluded from the design review process.
Ultimately, the combination of improved spatial understanding and greater diversity of inputs led to a client-certified savings of USD$2.55M in future modifications and reworks.
Al Ali, Salah (ADNOC - Al Yasat Petroleum Operation Company Ltd) | Al Habshi, Shaikh (ADNOC - Al Yasat Petroleum Operation Company Ltd) | Al Ashqar, Ameed (ADNOC - Al Yasat Petroleum Operation Company Ltd) | Bin Ruken, Saud (ADNOC - Al Yasat Petroleum Operation Company Ltd)
In accordance with the Global trend in Oil & Gas industry to invest in innovation and smart growth and capital efficiency (Project Light), Al Yasat has launched a new contracting scheme for the accelerating the development of its marginal oil fields. In view of difficult oil recovery cost and ease of contractor capacity due to nearing completion of previous field developments such as SARB and Umm al-Lulu, Al Yasat has contracted three EPC firms to compete on Front End Engineering and Design of the Belbazam field development with a grand prize for the winning design being selected to immediately proceed to Engineering, Procurement and Construction. The two losing bidders will be awarded consolation prizes in the form of partial recovery of their investments on the FEED. The attraction of this contracting scheme derives not from cost savings during the FEED stage, but most importantly from the omission of the bidding process for the EPC stage, with the winning contractor bearing full responsibility of their design whilst being fully deployed, with little to no variation costs. This paper discusses some of the success factors and concerns associated with design competition from a Clients perspective, with the objective of extracting the difficult oil from marginal fields in a profitable context.
In an earlier report, Professors Iris Tommelein and Glenn Ballard of the University of California, Berkeley, analyzed the underlying principles of the construction practice of Advanced Work Packaging (AWP) and provided a critique to its standard design, making a number of predictions. Fundamental in their critique is the operations policies and parameters that dictate the final behavior of a project production system when AWP is applied. They predicted undesirable consequences to the performance of project production systems including, but not limited to, inventory growth, longer cycle times, lower labor utilization and higher costs. Using an Operations Science framework, this paper reviews a capital project example that implemented AWP and uses this project experience to validate each of the predictions previously made by Professors Tommelein and Ballard.
Aldhaheri, Shamsa (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Jha, Ajay (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Singh, Harendra (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Kamal, Faris (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Takieddine, Oussama (National Petroleum Construction Company)
This paper is intended to discuss the impact of Safety Studies methodology on EPC Projects execution. The Specialized Safety Studies are normally carried out by Third Party Consultants and managed by EPC Contractors. In most of the fast tracks projects where Safety Studies should not take more than 6-8 months, EPC Contractor’s face challenges when methodologies for performing these studies are not practical to accommodate on fast track Projects norms.
EPC Contractor’s experience and lessons learned based on management of various third party studies are outlined hereafter.
EPC Contractor studied different cases where software requirement, basis & assumptions, methodologies or approaches suggested by Operating Companies, change or become impractical to implement during EPC or Detailed Engineering Phase. EPC Contractor analyzed its effect especially on fast track projects delivery, execution, cost and ability to adopt design changes that may come as a result of Safety Studies recommendations. Moreover, EPC Contractor looked deeply into the lack of dedicated Project Management Consultant (PMC) for the whole EPC Project execution period and impact thereof.
EPC Contractor’ detailed analysis shows that there is substantial benefit for EPC Contactors and Operating Companies in terms of cost and schedule. Based on lessons learned on various EPC projects executed, the following as minimum is observed:
In the case of CFD Smoke & Gas Dispersion Study, Operating Companies wish to simulate similar number of dispersion cases rather than logical adoption of liquid pool fire cases. For CFD Explosion Study, production of cruder explosion exceedance curve is required rather than scaling and correlation of dispersion and explosion runs. Also, for CFD based Safety Studies, it is observed that refined grid approach is requested instead of practical grid values based on EPC Contractor experience. ALARP demonstration is imposed for impairment frequencies between 1×10-5/yr. and 1×10-4/yr. rather than a criterion of 1×10-4/yr. for HSECESs.
In the case of CFD Smoke & Gas Dispersion Study, Operating Companies wish to simulate similar number of dispersion cases rather than logical adoption of liquid pool fire cases.
For CFD Explosion Study, production of cruder explosion exceedance curve is required rather than scaling and correlation of dispersion and explosion runs.
Also, for CFD based Safety Studies, it is observed that refined grid approach is requested instead of practical grid values based on EPC Contractor experience.
ALARP demonstration is imposed for impairment frequencies between 1×10-5/yr. and 1×10-4/yr. rather than a criterion of 1×10-4/yr. for HSECESs.
The above becomes challenging and increases simulation time significantly. On the other hand, similar results achieved by following practical approaches. Contractor experienced negative impact on progress as a result of not having permanent PMC Engineer which delays approval of deliverables. Contractor suggests that methodologies should be set and agreed during FEED and remain unchanged during EPC for proper cost estimation and execution of Projects.
EPC Contractor’s case studies and lessons learned can be adopted as best practices for fast track schedule driven Projects. Real project case studies demonstrate challenges faced by EPC Contractor in managing overall EPC Project execution as a result of Safety Studies methodologies. The paper highlights the benefits with various case studies that return many benefits to both Operating Companies and EPC Contractors.
This paper identifies and analyses ways in which effective contractual approaches can lay the foundation for mitigating various challenges project sponsors and contractors face during the commissioning of oil and gas projects. It achieves this by reference to specific circumstances that, while often arising in contexts outside of commissioning, raise specific challenges in commissioning scenarios. The paper includes a short case study that is referred to where necessary, along with examples of some drafting which go towards addressing the challenges identified. While there is a lot of literature available on the technical and procedural aspects of all phases of commissioning of large projects (including oil and has projects), there is little in the way of content relating to the role that contractual approaches play in ensuring that the various commissioning risk elements are identified and apportioned accordingly among the stakeholders. This is the lacuna that this paper seeks to address.
Subramanian, Senthilkumar (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Wasnik, Rakesh Vasant (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Singh, Harendra (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Kamal, Faris Ragheb (National Petroleum Construction Company) | Takieddine, Oussama Halim (National Petroleum Construction Company)
Early completion of Detailed Engineering is vital for ever demanding compressed schedules of mega Oil & Gas projects. FEED and EPC Detailed Engineering stages are the most significant phases which dictate the overall project schedule. Timely and effective engagement of EPC engineering resources at FEED stage contributes significantly to meet challenges of fast track projects. This paper highlights benefits derived by early engagement of EPC Engineering team in FEED based on case studies.
The potential disrupters for delivering fast track projects are many; early finalization of Long Lead Items is the key challenge to ensure timely delivery of materials. The challenges faced by the EPC Engineering team have cascading impact on downstream activities ultimately affecting project delivery. In order to mitigate the Detailed Engineering challenges, early engagement of EPC Engineering team in FEED is essential to achieve: Integrated Team –Alignment of all Stakeholders Eliminating Lengthy Cycle of FEED Verification Early review of all FEED Deliverables Early Procurement of Long Lead items Participation in HAZOP/Model/Constructability Review Optimized Project Schedule Mitigating Project Risks
Integrated Team –Alignment of all Stakeholders
Eliminating Lengthy Cycle of FEED Verification
Early review of all FEED Deliverables
Early Procurement of Long Lead items
Participation in HAZOP/Model/Constructability Review
Optimized Project Schedule
Mitigating Project Risks
Early engagement enables EPC Engineering team participation in review of FEED design, safety/design review workshops and value engineering processes held during FEED and share Lessons Learnt from previously executed projects. Major advantage is it enables early commencement of the critical items procurement using FEED deliverables which are alreaqdy reviewed & finalized along with EPC Contractor, thereby results in reducing the overall project schedule. This integrated approach helps in enhanced definition of the FEED deliverables which reduces the total project risk and thus potentially the EPC contract cost. It also shorten the overall project execution time, as it is possible to avoid EPC contract tendering, EPC proposal preparation, the Owner's assessment of different bids and the subsequent clarifications / negotiations with EPC Contractors. This strategy will suit to all types of projects and Clients, where schedule is the key project driver and will definitely be beneficial in fast track projects. From NPCC's experience, this approach is especially suitable for: New projects having standard design facilities e.g. wellhead towers, pipelines Expansion of existing facilities e.g. replacement/addition of similar processing trains, pipelines
New projects having standard design facilities e.g. wellhead towers, pipelines
Expansion of existing facilities e.g. replacement/addition of similar processing trains, pipelines
Recent experiences demonstrate, an optimization of project schedule is possible by integrating FEED with Detailed Engineering stage. This requires contracting strategies that are different from traditional contracts i.e. Cost-Reimbursable or LSTK and use hybrid methods combining salient features of traditional contracts.
NPCC has successfully executed fast track projects based on integrated FEED and EPC approach. This paper presents the case studies and outlines the recommendations to mitigate the EPC engineering challenges through experience on recent projects. The project execution strategy based on integrated involvement from all stakeholders ensures uniformity and consistency throughout all project execution stages. In current Oil & Gas scenario, industry focus is shifting towards fast track projects, the proposed approach offers benefits to all stakeholders.