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As the world’s energy demand continues to increase, the industry faces even more challenges in terms of safety and environment risks associated with meeting this demand. Over the years, the focus had been on managing risks of high occurrence and low consequence, whose effectiveness is monitored with indicators such as total recordable injury rate (TRIR) and lost time injury frequency (LTIF). Although the offshore industry has been successful at reducing these occupational incidents, not much improvement has happened in major accidents trend globally. The proposition is that relying on safety management system is less effective for major accident prevention. However, the North Sea has seen a reduction in major accidents, with two total loss events over 8 years and none in the subsequent 25 years period, which DNV attributes to the focus on barriers.
OSH professionals are required to possess a diverse set of skills and knowledge. Current trends in safety and risk management emphasize proactive approaches and preventive measures (ANSI/ASSP, 2019). Our profession is rapidly changing; to succeed, practitioners must be equipped to integrate safety, risk management, lean six sigma (LSS) and business management methodologies.
LSS has been adopted and proven to work well with OSH management principles, but this prudent and proven approach could elicit some questions (Manuele, 2018).
•Is OSH assigned the same value as product quality and process efficiency?
•Is safety excellence considered a core value in the business environment?
•Is it possible to integrate LSS into OSH management objectives?
This article presents a case study to address these questions, which in many ways determine the trajectory of the OSH systems in place. Since it can be challenging to integrate both of these systems when addressing risks, the case study demonstrates the advantages of using LSS tools within OSH management. Two approaches are used to demonstrate the benefits of this synergy: one originating from OSH, another from LSS.
The Unconventional Resources (UR) Gas Operations has recently been developed to deliver the first unconventional production to its customers, to produce, process and pipeline gas to satisfy energy demand and support the potential future development, and reduce the liquid burning at power generation facilities. This organization handles unique, scattered and unmanned facilitates, where each facility operates differently based on the geographical nature of the field. For start-up, best practices were leveraged from for Unconventional Gas companies around the world. This includes reviewing and incorporating latest technologies to meet the business challenges of unconventional gas at the lowest cost, and most importantly, safest operations.
As a new operating organization, UR Gas Operations had to define their major processes for achieving the objective of delivering customer expectations safely. These processes include the implementation of a Safety Management System (SMS) to enable control and management over plant safety, maintenance and reliability. With the help of advanced digitalization, SMS processes are being automated to maximize their effectiveness and efficiency. SMS acts as one platform that integrate the safety processes of different facilities under one umbrella. Furthermore, SMS is a critical pillar of Operational Excellence, it involves a set of defined processes that are measured through KPIs to comply with the company's safe operations which was named "SMS Online"
Developing SMS Online have a positive impact on two key stakeholders in UR; Gas Operations Engineers, and Gas Operations Management. The SMS Online is a visualization platform for the safety performance KPIs across the UR Gas Operation organization. Hence SMS enforces accountability for proper KPI tracking and reporting, with compliance to safety processes. In addition, SMS Online creates an environment that supports engineers with their daily safety revisions, tracking, guidance, etc. This portal has increased the accessibility to safety processes across the organization by having a friendly user interface that navigates through SMS elements and processes. The system also provides an automated tracking system for assigning and managing action items assigned against individuals that alert actionees for closing an item prior to the deadline through an alerts and notification system.
In a majority of the industrial facilities around the world, there is a big gap between building a new facility and being fully developed Business Operating Company. A comprehensive vision and a check list of essential Information Technology and Operational Technology systems was put in place to support business readiness for safe and efficient plant start up. SMS Online was a key component of this strategy, which was developed in-house by the UR IT as the first automated safety management system in the UR.
Many organisations operating in the high hazards industrial sectors have process safety management (PSM) systems in place; but what does PSM mean in practice when there are many safety risk reduction measures to manage, and are some more important than others? The objective was to improve capability of managing safety critical elements (SCEs) by revising the established 2nd edition industry' technical publication'Guidelines for Management of Safety Critical Elements' (Energy Institute 2007). Through a cross-company collaborative Energy Institute working group, industry was engaged in a technical development project to capture experience in SCE management since publication of the 2nd edition (Energy Institute 2007). Whilst The term SCE originates in the UK E&P sector legislation, experience is that SCE management concepts in the E&P sector have since been applied internationally across Europe through to Australasia, driven by a European Directive and national requirements, respectively. In addition, industry engagement showed that SCE management concepts also have been applied beyond the E&P sector to petroleum refining and bulk storage, and conventional (thermal) power generation. The 3rd edition (Energy Institute 2019) has updated the 2nd edition (Energy Institute 2007) so as to: capture industry experience in SCE management; make it applicable to a wider range of facilities, and recognise the range of maturity of international legislation and competent authority requirements for SCE management, which include some that mandate verification through to those with little specific requirement for MAH management. In doing so, the 3rd edition provides: new guidance on SCE development and management in project phases, from initial SCE suitability through to ongoing SCE suitability; new guidance on the role of human and organisational factors in SCE management; new guidance on management of change (MoC), which is a challenge to SCE management; additional guidance on developing performance standards (PSs); additional guidance on assurance aspects of SCE management, to address an imbalance with the amount of guidance on verification; new guidance on implementation of SCE integrity assurance, such as its interface with maintenance management; new guidance on SCE management at system, equipment and component levels; new guidance on determining SCE criticality; new guidance on SCE performance, review and continual improvement, and new guidance on SCE ageing, obsolescence and life extension. In addition, the 3rd edition provides practical examples to support the guidance.
To assess and improve process plants safety and integrity in real time and intervene in timely manner. Assets are safe and we can prove it by employing Real Time Data Analytics to reduce operational process safety risk and improve plant safety and integrity assurance. Real time IPF/Bypass management and validation guarantee the overall effective safety system for safe Operational Excellence.
Petronas Upstream employed Data Analytical tool to facilitate analysis of Instrumented Protective Functions performance, Bypass Management, documentation of proof testing, and management of required test schedules for Process Safety. Automated reporting of analytical tool provides testing requirements for current and future protective functions throughout the facility. All Bypasses of Instrumented Safety System (IPF) are monitored in Real Time and Descriptive Analytics has been developed to provide insights to safe operation of the facility. The software analytical tool implemented enable validation testing when the system is activated. In the event of a failure or fault of the safety system, plant personnel are notified and all information updated in centralized Web Based Dashboard for high level of data transparency across all stake holders. Descriptive analytical system helps to identify potential equipment malfunction/failures in advance. Automatic Alert & Notification of anomalies are sent to identified stakeholders. There is no room for error, yet there are many ways to bypass IPF from Safety Instrumented System(SIS) so Real Time Bypass Management is a key success factor for Process Safety Assurance & Asset Integrity.
Real Time Web Based Dashboard designed to customize to user specific actionable analytics to Visualize Current Risk and Current availability of Instrumented Protective functions to identify risk. Performance Reporting strengthen the Analysis and reporting of IPF performance against design criteria. Real Time Analytics resulted from IPF Design Data for Design time, process safety time, testing interval, risk, consequence, severity, SIL level and more. Real Time Analytics are available on-demand through a single web based and mobile-enabled user interface (withing domain). Real Time Analytics for multiple user level provides indispensable capabilities to guarantee effective management of IPF Performance, Bypass Management, Demand on safety System rate tracking, Excusions Management, Safety and Operational Risk Visualization. The Data Analytics is aligned to management aspiration of Going Digital for sustainable future and to cultivate effective collaboration.
Standards, such as
validating instrument integrity by means of data analytics & performance analysis.
improving safety & risk management to minimize Unplanned Shutdown
enhance performance contributing to cost optimization & corporate Safety goal achievement.
Striking Down Cost through Efficiency & Simplification
Driving Technology to change the way we work
Exemplifying a World-Class Work Culture
This paper presents research underway at the University of Strathclyde’s Maritime Safety Research Centre (MSRC) from the author’s PhD program. The paper summarizes the development of the current International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) approach to implementing a Safety Management System (SMS), looks at rail and airline industry’s current approaches to SMSs and then proposes a new framework for maritime implementation. The focus is on integrating a more holistic (Enterprise) risk management process into the SMS. This proposed integration is modelled using Dr. Nancy Leveson’s (MIT) System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA). The preliminary results are presented along with the corresponding requirements that the SMS must address.
Most of you know the value of data in safety management systems. However, a lot of safety management systems mainly show the number of incidents or days without injuries. Yes, they are great for marketing and showing off how great the company is doing, but numbers don’t add much for the company. In order to really start adding value to the company, it is important to analyze the data and find out where important trends are. Getting incident data can often be hard to accomplish.
Learning is a "linear process" for workers. It includes studying and understanding basic systems, normal procedures, and emergency procedures in an operational setting. Therefore, they must be developed for the frontline worker, from the frontline worker's perspective and in their words. Step by step procedures will describe the operation of equipment and the interaction of co-workers in the operational context without leaving the frontline worker any questions or assumptions - it is written with concept of operational-need-to-know. Once completed, they will capture the optimum efficient processes and improve your safety management system.
By borrowing best practices from the airline industry several oil and gas companies have been able to implement a system that prevents and traps human error. My presentation will share with your audience that the foundation to safety and efficiency is the creation of standard work for operators and contractors. Standard work that delivers quality work based on the development of procedures and checklists that work in harmony on the rig floor. We will highlight our success measured by the increased efficiency in fracking by over 300%, a reduction in crane incidents by 50% and the reduction of fatal control of work errors. All through the development of a standardization department which became the center for excellence for the operator and the contractor.
Standardization regarding operational procedures are still a new concept within the industry. Our team has produced tangible results which will be shared with the SPE membership in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of standardization and the increased safety and efficiency from it.
The Voltaian basin, Ghana's largest inland basin is the least explored of the sedimentary basins in Ghana. Based on past reconnaissance surveys, albeit limited survey data, the basin is believed to have prospects of hydrocarbon reserves. The government has therefore renewed interest in the Voltaian Basin Project (VBP) to prepare and promote the basin to allow hydrocarbon exploitation activities. Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC), has been tasked to undertake this project. This paper undertook a safety assessment of the VBP and post VBP, and also examined its economic impact on the Ghanaian economy using standard risk management techniques and economic modelling respectively.
It was deduced that a combination of high to low levels of risk exist in all phases of the project. Out of 64 hazards identified with the VBP and post VBP, three (3) were found to be of high risk, fifty-one (51) of medium risk and ten (10) of low risk. These risks range from gas leakage, through cement plug failure to slips, trips and falls. However, with appropriate mitigation measures such as routine inspection, routine maintenance and repairs, organizing periodic training programs and ensuring a robust Safety Management System, these risks could be reduced to the barest minimum, if not eliminated. The project is therefore a safe endeavour.
In the event of commercial discovery, based on reliable data and informed estimations, the project was observed to accrue net earnings based on net present value for all stakeholders in the sums of at least $18.8 billion, $2.5 billion and $23.8 billion for government, GNPC and International Oil Companies respectively after ten (10) years of production.
The project, if successful, would contribute immensely to the development of the Ghanaian economy. It is expected to replenish the country's declining reserves, provide a comparatively cheaper means of hydrocarbon exploitation, help build the capacity of the national oil company for operatorship in Exploration and Production operations and enhance Ghana's energy supply, bridging the demand gap.
For many years, the energy industry has understood both the moral and business imperatives for providing effective safety-management systems to keep employees, contractors, the communities in which they operate, and the environment safe. In pursuing its safety program entitled “Nobody Gets Hurt,” ExxonMobil seeks performance breakthroughs that will eliminate not only fatalities and higher-consequence injuries and outcomes, but all hurts, including those of lower severity. The company has focused its efforts on operations-integrity management systems, process safety, transformational leadership, safety culture, and human factors that affect its systems and processes. Considerable study of human factors has led to a number of innovations, including classification of incidents on the basis of both hurt and potential-hurt levels. A detailed study of upstream events in 2015 found that although decisions made in the moment affected some incidents, many had resulted from decisions made sometimes days, months, or even years earlier. From this analysis, the company identified some higher-priority areas of focus for its safety-management systems, and, most importantly, identified a need for enhancing decision-making knowledge and awareness as a step toward conscious, safer decision making. Understanding the human factors behind decision making was critical to unlocking a breakthrough in performance. This article, written by JPT Technology Editor Judy Feder, contains highlights of paper SPE 191514, “Safe Choice—Operationalizing Human Performance Science in Decision-Making,” by Carla Santamaria, Jim K. Flood, Paul C. Schuberth, SPE, Jorge J. Morell, Jaime R. Hinojosa, and Justin Haddock, ExxonMobil, and Hugh O’Donnell, Eric Sandelands, Mel Cowan, and Alan Higgins, Ingenium, prepared for the 2018 SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 24–26 September. The paper has not been peer reviewed.