Du, Xuan (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina Co. Ltd.) | Zheng, Haora (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina Co. Ltd.) | Wang, Xiaochun (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina Co. Ltd.) | Hua, Xin (China Petroleum Technology Development Corporation, PetroChina Co. Ltd.) | Guan, Wenlong (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina Co. Ltd.) | Zhao, Fang (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina Co. Ltd.) | Xu, Jiacheng (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Development, PetroChina Co. Ltd.)
Heavy oil reservoirs are generally unconsolidated and easy to produce sand during production
Sand management has become in one of the most vital factors in today's upstream oil and gas industry, more and more are the cases where the sand control systems play an important factor to determine the economic viability of each project. This paper will focus in a solution for sand problems in ESP systems applying to sand slug breakdown using a 10 V-Mesh Sand Screen to homogenize the solid inflow in the system so it would be easier to handle the solids through the ESP's stages. The implementation of the screen intake for the homogenization of solids in an ESP well allowed to efficiently manage sand slugs, improving the pump efficiency and avoiding blocking problems in the pump caused by sand. Furthermore, the system allows increasing the frequency of operation of the ESP motor to have a greater drawdown, increasing the production of the fluid from 1600 BFPD to 1800 BFPD. The behavior of the sensor data such as vibration, current, and voltage remained stable throughout the period evaluated, extending the run life of the system.
The well discussed in this paper has a history of sand production and has exhibit long cyclic slugging behavior with a frequency of several days and reduced average production. The lower completion has a 2000-ft gap between the mule shoe and the packer that is exposed to the larger diameter of 7-in. liner. It is not fully understood whether the slugging is caused by the gap at the lower completion or by sand transportation or both.
Dynamic wellbore modelling with sand particle transport is essential to model the abovementioned complex slugging behavior. A stepwise approach was adopted to allow systematic evaluation of this complex slugging phenomenon. Initially, a lumped inflow with no sand transportation was assumed. In the next stage, sand transportation was included with zonal inflow details added. Several sensitivities on sand particle sizes, particle density, zonal productivity index, etc. were carried out, all of which were aimed at reproducing the long cyclic slugging behavior observed in the field.
Transient simulations successfully produced the slugging behavior observed in the field. Cyclic slugging was seen to be caused by the flow dynamics generated by particles of small to medium size. Some of the key findings were complete blockage by porous sand stationary bed at the lower completion gap (with subsequent pressure buildup), transition from stationary bed to moving bed, rate-dependent velocity of a slow-moving particle bed (eventually producing to surface), and fresh sand particle production from the reservoir at increased drawdown. Measured data from the sand detector confirmed the production of sand, particularly around the same period as predicted by simulation.
Potential slug mitigation solutions were established that should help to achieve higher and stable production. One solution was to achieve higher flow velocity and therefore enable sand transportation as a continuous moving bed (i.e., no blockage), such as reducing the gap size at the lower completion section together with either tubing size reduction or electric submersible pump (ESP) installation. The other solution was to implement an appropriate sand control/sand consolidation method.
Sand production is a common flow assurance issue and sometimes can result in unstable flow behavior causing reduced production. This work is the first attempt to implement particle transport modelling in transient multiphase flow simulation to successfully address a slugging issue in a real well. The analysis helped in understanding the mechanism causing the slugging and arriving at a potential mitigation solution. Further, it provides a step-by-step workflow and a template to address such problems.
This paper proposes a new work flow to simulate water-hammer events, the resulting wellbore failure, and sand production in water injectors. Many column inches are filled with discussion of how companies need to operate in the lower-for-longer market that the upstream oil and gas industry continues to face.
Analytics, sensors, and robots are changing the way one of the world’s largest oil and gas companies does business. Underpinning all the new technology though is a shift in how BP thinks, and what it means to be a supermajor in the 21st century. This paper describes a coreflooding program performed with sandpacks at different permeabilities, water qualities, and injection conditions. In this paper, a new type of sand-consolidation low-viscous binding material, based on a combination of inorganic and organic components, is presented. This paper presents the first successful application of ceramic sand screens offshore Malaysia.
A significant portion of Asia Pacific’s hydrocarbon production comes from poorly consolidated sandstone reservoirs which requires some form of sand control implementation for economic production. The expertise and engineering surrounding Sand Control completion designs and optimisation however has not kept pace with the region’s needs. The course introduces the participants to the causes of sand production, its impact on hydrocarbon production and the selection of an optimised design to develop the reservoir. The course details the evaluation of the reservoirs’ properties including geomechanical, particle size distribution and development objectives to aid in the selection and design of a robust sand control methodology for implementation. The Sand Control methods covered include deferred sand control, perforating for sand control, sand exclusion techniques; screen only completion, cased hole and open hole gravel packing and fracpacks for new reservoirs as well as remedial and retrofit applications for existing wells.
The course addresses the holistic sand management strategy implementation from geomechanics perspectives, through evaluation and implementation of appropriate solutions for minimisation of well costs and maximisation of reservoir productivity. It will look at the inter-relationships between geomechanics and operations, application of geomechanics in relation to sand production and completions, and show how geomechanics can be best applied to provide maximum value in sand management and life-of-well and field operations. The course comprehensively covers geomechanics and operational-related sand production mechanisms, laboratory simulations of sand production to provide measurement data for model calibration and validation, state-of-the-art analytical and 4-D numerical sanding predictive methodologies for life-of-well and field including scale effect, rock strength properties reduction associated with water-cut and estimation of cumulative sand volume and rate of sand production, and optimal mitigation and management of sand production taking into consideration the feasibility of deferment or elimination of sand control installation. The course is illustrated with field examples. Application of geomechanics in relation to sand production and completions in order to provide maximum value in sand management and life-of-well and field operations.
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. Free grains of sand pulled loose by flow, brittle failure, or formation disaggregation and produced with the hydrocarbon production.
Plunger lift is used for recovery, primarily in high gas-oil ratio (GOR) wells, in many countries. Applications include wells with depths of 1,000 to 16,000 ft, producing bottomhole pressures of 50 to 1,500 psia, and liquid rates of 1 to 100 B/D. These are common ranges of application, but not necessarily limits of operation. In fact, plungers have been installed on wells for the sole purpose of preventing paraffin or hydrate buildup, thereby reducing paraffin scraping or methanol injection. For this use, when plunger lift is installed, paraffin, hydrates, and salt should be removed so that the plunger will travel freely up and down the tubing.
These formations are usually geologically young (Tertiary age) and shallow, and they have little or no natural cementation. Sand production is unwanted because it can plug wells, erode equipment, and reduce well productivity. It also has no economic value. Nonetheless, formation sand production from wells is dealt with daily on a global basis. In certain producing regions, sand control completions are the dominant type and result in considerable added expense to operations.