Harvesting vast amounts of data has long been identified as an enabler of operational performance. The measurement of key performance indicators is a routine practice in well construction, but a systematic way of statistically analyzing performance against a large data bank of offset wells is not a common practice. The performance of statistical analysis in real time is even more rare. With the introduction of edge computing, devices capable of complex analytical functions in physical proximity to sensors and operations, this practice can be realized. Two case studies are presented: rate of penetration (ROP) and amount of vibration per run.
Hypothesis testing is a statistical method in which a sampled dataset is compared against an idealized or status quo model. This model is built using many samples from a population. The characteristics of the population are then inferred from these samples. The model is built in centers where large amounts of data are available. These models are then transferred to an edge device in the field. The device collects real-time data and compares results to the status quo model. In the two cases presented, hypothesis testing was used to determine maximum and minimum levels of ROP and downhole vibration. This information is used to determine the effectiveness of new drilling practices, technologies, or methodologies. Because calculations are performed in real time, changes to drilling practices can be adopted quickly.
The ROP case was performed at a US operating unit; the vibration case was performed in a Middle East unit. The models showed what improvement values should be. It was revealing to find wells that were thought to be poor performers were actually well within the population normal. Wells were also found that were thought to be good performers, but where new drilling methods were used, actually fell within the population model and thus suggested that the new methods had not affected performance. By performing this analysis on the edge device, operations can make changes early in such a way that results fall outside the status quo model and deliver real performance improvements.
The paper presents the novel use of statistical models calculated in data centers in conjunction with real-time operations. Similar approaches in technical and physics modeling exist in which models are produced in the office and used in the field. However, building models for operations management, from a large bank of offset data, and performing analysis in the field with real-time data is a not common practice. This paper shows both technology and statistical methods that provide a valid scientific framework for operational performance improvement.
Bakulin, Andrey (Geophysics Technology, EXPEC Advanced Research Center, Saudi Aramco) | Golikov, Pavel (Geophysics Technology, EXPEC Advanced Research Center, Saudi Aramco) | Erickson, Kevin (Geophysics Technology, EXPEC Advanced Research Center, Saudi Aramco) | Silvestrov, Ilya (Geophysics Technology, EXPEC Advanced Research Center, Saudi Aramco) | Kim, Young Seo (Geophysics Technology, EXPEC Advanced Research Center, Saudi Aramco) | Smith, Robert (Geophysics Technology, EXPEC Advanced Research Center, Saudi Aramco) | Al-Ali, Mustafa (Geophysics Technology, EXPEC Advanced Research Center, Saudi Aramco)
A novel acquisition scheme using distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) technology, which enables simultaneous near-surface characterization and deep reflection imaging, is proposed. At the heart of the system are the smart DAS upholes, a series of shallow wells instrumented by a continuous fiber-optic cable. Accurate long-wavelength statics captured from direct uphole measurements reduce interpretation uncertainty, while much of the surface wave noise that contaminates conventional surface acquisition is avoided when recording using buried vertical arrays. Here the first field tests conducted in Saudi Arabia are presented, focusing on the imaging results produced from data acquired from the vertical portions of the fiber. Both time and depth seismic images show excellent results despite large well spacing. Comparison of DAS data with legacy seismic revealed good agreement between them. The smart DAS uphole system is a paradigm shift in seismic acquisition that can overcome some of the major challenges caused by complex near surface conditions, resulting in improved data quality and reduction in exploration risk.
Presentation Date: Wednesday, October 17, 2018
Start Time: 8:30:00 AM
Location: 204C (Anaheim Convention Center)
Presentation Type: Oral
More and more companies are embracing this new way of extracting knowledge from downhole sensors in making better decisions and minimize non-productive time (NPT). Rigs provide massive amount of data to help drilling engineers optimize drilling efficiency, minimize NPT, and their associated costs. Learning to use data efficiently to improve drilling is a discipline that requires a combination of different skill sets including oilfield experience, statistics, programming, and effective communication. This interview explores this emerging discipline--the opportunities, challenges as well as what young professionals (YPs) need to know to have a rewarding career in drilling data analytics. To understand what's involved in the daily life of an analytics engineer, the skillsets required for the job, and how to make this transition, the TWA HR Discussion team interviewed Peter Kowalchuk, senior product manager, Halliburton Digital Solutions, about his experiences working with data discovery, visualization, interpretation, analytics, and decision making.
Small- and medium-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) is different from conventional LNG in trading distances, target markets, and application areas. Small- and medium-scale LNG may better coordinate needs between regional gas producers and consumers. Cluster LNG is a new concept of LNG technology suitable for emerging market environments. High performance of cluster LNG originates from higher liquefaction temperature and the adoption of efficient refrigerants for the temperature ranges. The inherent high performance of cluster LNG enables low capital expenditure (CAPEX) and low operational expenditure (OPEX).
In the BP Statistical Review of World Energy (BP 2014), it was cited that consumption and production have increased for oil and natural gas to record levels across the globe. In parallel, hydrocarbon companies have been ramping up spending to meet those capital needs. Developing economies nonetheless strive to dominate global energy supply, accounting for 80% of growth last year and nearly 100% of growth over the past decade (BP 2014). These figures are directly in proportion to projects that have schedule delays; as an example, 87% in the Middle East, 82% in Africa, and 80% in Asia Pacific. In relation to the size of cost overruns and scheduled delays, it was highlighted that 65% of the projects analyzed were facing cost overruns, with an average increase of 23% of the approved budget (EY 2014).
A paradigm shift in dealing with subsurface uncertainty in hydraulic fracturing treatments is introduced. The mathematically rigorous application of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for a proposed stimulation of a lateral well within an unconventional reservoir in the Marcellus with limited formation data delivers the ability to identify the optimum treatment parameters and to quantify its probability of success. Selection of the optimum reservoir stimulation treatment is achieved by systematically investigating thousands of hydraulic fracture simulations over a large parameter space covering formation properties with inherent uncertainties (e.g., stress gradients, leak-off coefficients) and tunable treatment parameters (e.g. pumping rates, fluid and proppant properties, perforation spacing), and computing an objective function. Operators commonly select objectives based on technical (e.g., propped fracture length, fracture height containment), operational and investment considerations. Here, the average fracture conductivity at closure is selected as the primary technical objective to be maximized. A subsequent uncertainty analysis of the optimum treatment plan that expressly includes the limits of formation property knowledge quantifies the probability of success. Production forecasts of specific cases illustrate the range of possible outcomes. Results from more than 12,000 hydraulic stimulation simulations demonstrate a wide distribution of results in terms of average fracture conductivity. Surprisingly, only a small, isolated fraction (< 5%) of the design space returns clearly superior results compared to the majority of investigated scenarios. The optimum treatment designs in this study are associated with relatively low volumes of a gel treatment pumped at relatively high rates. Production simulations illustrate that the best 10% of cases significantly outperform production over the first two years by approximately 50%. Collectively, the approach presented here illustrates the application of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses on several thousand simulations that cover a large, realistic parameter space. Embracing uncertainty, this approach enables identification of the best treatment plan and quantification of the probability of success given limited formation data. In addition, this methodology offers input for risk assessment and return on investment decisions.
Ejofodomi, Efejera (Schlumberger) | Sethi, Richa (Schlumberger) | Aktas, Elcin (Schlumberger) | Padgett, Julie (Schlumberger) | Mackay, Bruce (Schlumberger) | Mirakyan, Andrey (Schlumberger) | McCrackin, Ben (Manti Tarka Permian) | Douglas, Chris (Manti Tarka Permian)
This paper was prepared for presentation at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 23-25 July 2018. The URTeC Technical Program Committee accepted this presentation on the basis of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). The contents of this paper have not been reviewed by URTeC and URTeC does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, or timeliness of any information herein. All information is the responsibility of, and, is subject to corrections by the author(s). Any person or entity that relies on any information obtained from this paper does so at their own risk. The information herein does not necessarily reflect any position of URTeC. Any reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper by anyone other than the author without the written consent of URTeC is prohibited.
Channa, Zohaib (ADMA-OPCO) | Ahmad, Fazeel (ADMA-OPCO) | Khan, Muhammad Navaid (ADMA-OPCO) | Nofal, Salman. F. (ADMA-OPCO) | Al-Hosani, Ibrahim. A. (ADMA-OPCO) | Al-Shehi, Omar Y. S. (ADMA-OPCO) | Al-Neaimi, Ahmed K. (ADMA-OPCO)
The selection of optimum tubing size is one of the most critical steps in achieving the desired well productivity and prolonging the well life to maximize the hydrocarbon recovery; and it becomes more important for the naturally flowing well. It is a common industrial practice to reduce tubing size for extending the well life when a naturally flowing oil or gas well ceased to flow post experiencing the water breakthrough. Contrary to this general belief, an extensive piece of work has been carried to assess the well performance in high productivity (prolific) oil reservoir. In this paper, an actual case study is presented which demonstrates the overall better performance of a well completed with the bigger tubing size in a high productivity (prolific) oil reservoir. The study also compares the performance of the well completed in low productivity reservoir in the same field, which shows that the use of the bigger tubing size is a better option for sustaining the well life, hence negating the traditional industry belief of reducing the tubing size post water breakthrough into a well, regardless of the prevailing reservoir characteristics.
The PDF file of this paper is in Russian.
Chemical stimulation has a strong track record of production improvement, and has always adapted to suit ever new environments, regulations and scenarios. From early arsenic based chemical techniques, the approaches have moved on and matured to HF and HCl solutions, and more recently with environmentally friendly additives. However, the pendulum continues to move and due to an increasing impact of conventional acid systems on ageing production infrastructure, facilities and pipelines as well as an inability to commercially support independent intervention and/or flow-back, even these systems are sometimes considered unacceptable.
Fortunately, the industry is now in the privileged position of being able to address these issues, it simply does not yet appear to have fully appreciated this widely. All too often stimulation interventions are reasonably justified on the basis of poor well performance; only to be disregarded when it becomes clear that simplistic deployment and flow-back are not considered available options, due to corrosive stimulation fluid behaviour. However, more recently synthetic acid formulations have removed the majority of these concerns; with neutral pH, inert corrosion behaviour and environmentally acceptable chemistry, they are the ideal answer to the range of issues that have mounted over recent years.
This paper will demonstrate that the oilfield has recently developed the necessary solutions, that when combined together provide for a low cost, environmentally friendly, low impact, integrity aligned approach to well stimulation operations under the majority of conditions. Certainly requiring a multi-disciplinary deployment approach, these new chemistries and methodologies offer the very tantalising prospect of a reinvigorated chemical stimulation business, particularly in mature/high-cost/remote basins. With case histories, process considerations and holistic intervention considerations; the paper will demonstrate the extensive opportunity that is currently simply waiting to be accessed by these techniques throughout the brownfield environment. No longer referred to as "acid treatments", these twenty-first century approaches to stimulation, offer the industry the unique potential to redefine and reclassify the delivery from these operations.
Maximising recovery from existing assets is heavily relied upon in annual wellwork; particularly in challenging commercial environments. While wellbore stimulation can deliver this, historically, the percentage of delivery from intervention has reduced, due to increasing issues related to environmental, integrity and commercial challenges. The deployment of synthetic acids as environmentally, integrity and commercially attractive solutions; offers an opportunity for a complete revitalization of chemical stimulation in mature and commercially challenged basins.