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Steam generation for the purposes of thermal recovery includes facilities to treat the water (produced water or fresh water), generate the steam, and transport it to the injection wells. A steamflood uses high-quality steam injected into an oil reservoir. The quality of steam is defined as the weight percent of steam in the vapor phase to the total weight of steam. The higher the steam quality, the more heat is carried by this steam. High-quality steam provides heat to reduce oil viscosity, which mobilizes and sweeps the crude to the producing wells.
As oil production in the Permian Basin continues to rise, the consequent rise in produced water volumes is placing a financial squeeze on operators in the region. Figuring out what to do with this water is a challenge every operator faces. Given the potential seismicity and capacity issues surrounding saltwater disposal, reusing that water has become a viable solution for reducing costs and limiting water-sourcing constraints--last year Wood Mackenzie estimated a potential savings range from $1.00 to $2.50 per barrel. However, another solution could provide additional relief: treating water for discharge, effectively creating fresh water that can be used for irrigation and uses in other industries. "The numbers are very great," said Lnsp "Naggs" Nagghappen, vice president of Veolia North America.
The cost of carbon capture is the major impediment in its mainstream acceptance, but its ability to abate the carbon emissions at a considerable scale, makes it a technology with promising potential. The paper presents detailed account of the energy optimization meticulous review carried out for a brownfield project to capture carbon from the Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) Tail Gas. The paper demonstrates the vital role of energy optimization in restraining the carbon capture cost.
The methodology comprised development of an overall integrated heat & power model of the process encompassing energy supply sources, including power generation and import, and major energy consumers like CO2 absorption solvent regenerator, CO2 compressor and dense phase CO2 pump etc. The optimization was achieved by setting the objective function to minimize energy cost in terms of steam & power demand, by relating the selection of major drivers i.e. electric motor or steam turbine, as well as solvent, with the total energy cost in conjunction with the associated CAPEX. It followed with a meticulous review of individual systems and components.
Comprehensive energy optimization exercise, equating energy supply, major drivers’ selection and process decisions with the total energy cost and the associated CAPEX minimization, facilitated in carbon capture cost reduction by more than 10%. The optimized scheme helped in maximizing the utilization of available waste heat as well as in minimizing the spare steam dumping in condensers. The exercise confirmed the absolute significance of the energy optimization measures in reducing the cost of carbon capture.
In accordance with the corporate drive towards sustainability & 2030 strategy to reduce Green House Gases (GHG) intensity by 25%, ADNOC Gas Processing strives for energy efficiency improvement in its existing and future assets. With the current focus on Waste Heat Recovery (WHR), ADNOC Gas Processing is looking into energy saving opportunities to improve operational efficiency and reduce fuel gas consumption. This paper presents a comprehensive technical assessment including cost benefit analyses of recovering waste heat from mechanical drive gas turbines for energy savings. Earlier a high- level technical assessment was carried out to assess the potential of recovering waste heat from different heat sources across ADNOC Gas Processing plants. Recovering waste heat from mechanical drive gas turbines indicated promising results. Accordingly, a detailed feasibility study was carried out to evaluate several options to recover energy from gas turbines exhaust. The feasibility study addressed three options of recovering energy from gas turbines exhaust; generating superheated steam, generating power and combined solution of steam & power. The options were assessed in terms of technical feasibility and commercial viability. The waste heat recovery potential was assessed for design as well as actual operating data.
Ciszkowski, Christine (University of Calgary) | Ouled Ameur, Zied (Cenovus Energy Inc.) | Forsyth, Jeffrey P. J. (Cenovus Energy Inc. and nFluids Inc.) | Nightingale, Mike (University of Calgary) | Shevalier, Maurice (University of Calgary) | Mayer, Bernhard (University of Calgary)
Summary Mineral precipitation (scale) can significantly hinder production in petroleum reservoirs. This includes steam‐assisted‐gravity‐drainage (SAGD) operations used for bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil-sand region (AOSR) of northeastern Alberta, Canada. We explored whether select geochemical and isotope tracers (δH, δO, δB, δS, δC, Sr/Sr) in SAGD‐water sources can help to improve the understanding of the dynamics of reservoir fluids and their mixing in SAGD operations that might contribute toward scale precipitation. Pore water, bottom‐formation water, steam condensate, and returned emulsions (produced bitumen and water) were sampled from an SAGD reservoir in northeastern Alberta and analyzed for geochemical and isotopic parameters. The results obtained indicate distinct Na and Cl concentrations and δO and δH values for these fluid sources. Significant differences in δCDIC, δB, and δS values and Sr/Sr ratios were observed between bottom‐formation water, steam condensate, and returned-water samples and hence constitute excellent tracers for bottomwater (BW) influx.
Ciszkowski, Christine (University of Calgary ) | Ouled Ameur, Zied (Cenovus Energy Inc) | Forsyth, Jeffrey P. J. (Cenovus Energy Inc. and nFluids Inc.) | Nightingale, Mike (University of Calgary ) | Shevalier, Maurice (University of Calgary ) | Mayer, Bernhard (University of Calgary)
Mineral precipitation (scale) can significantly hinder production in petroleum reservoirs. This includes steam-assisted-gravity-drainage (SAGD) operations used for bitumen recovery in the Athabasca oil-sand region (AOSR) of northeastern Alberta, Canada. We explored whether select geochemical and isotope tracers (δ2H, δ18O, δ11B, δ34S, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr) in SAGD-water sources can help to improve the understanding of the dynamics of reservoir fluids and their mixing in SAGD operations that might contribute toward scale precipitation. Pore water, bottom-formation water, steam condensate, and returned emulsions (produced bitumen and water) were sampled from an SAGD reservoir in northeastern Alberta and analyzed for geochemical and isotopic parameters. The results obtained indicate distinct Na and Cl concentrations and δ18O and δ2H values for these fluid sources. Significant differences in δ13CDIC, δ11B, and δ34S values and 87Sr/86Sr ratios were observed between bottom-formation water, steam condensate, and returned-water samples and hence constitute excellent tracers for bottomwater (BW) influx.
Al-Ballam, Shaikha (Kuwait Oil Company) | Pandey, Dharmesh (Kuwait Oil Company) | Pallath, George (Shell Kuwait Exploration & Production B.V.) | Kuijvenhoven, Cornelis (Shell Kuwait Exploration & Production B.V.)
Abstract A cost-effective water management strategy for the thermal development should ensure the availability of right quality and quantity of water during the lifetime of the field. This paper presents an actual case for field water management, which includes availability, use, re-use and safe disposal of both source and effluent water. Thermal projects are notorious for their large volume of produced water through the life of the field. While treatment of produced water is a major issue; in a country like Kuwait where water is scarce, part of the produced water need to be recycled and re-used for steam generation. The methods and procedure followed are based on the practices used in the current Large Scale Thermal Pilots (LSTPs). The process involves field observations and performance, facility set-up and limitations, technical analysis and mitigation plan; so as to reach to an efficient water management plan and deliver better quality water. Heavy oil field development in Northern Kuwait is currently one of the few thermal "mega-projects" in the world. The development started initially with Cyclic Steam Stimulation (CSS), followed by Steam Flood (SF). These projects need dedicated used water disposal wells. Water disposal wells, initially completed, showed poor injectivity even after CTU acid stimulation with 15% HCl. Based on lab test results and analysis, injectivity was restored with suitable anti-scalant injection and precipitate removal. Another aspect of these wells was the injection casing shoe-setting depth. A multi-disciplinary team reviewed and established the optimum placement interval for shoe that meets the regulatory and design criteria. The new shoe setting-depth eliminated repeated well interventions during the life of these wells. The learnings were disseminated to various other projects within the company. Quality of source water was also a focus area for the team. Water quality of the source water at various depths were analyzed and tested. Based on the results, optimum well depth and location was ascertained which resulted in improved water quality and quantity. A novel approach, with key focus on competitive scoping and sustainable development and the combined effort from various stakeholders through an integrated approach have enabled significant savings to reduce the cost of this project. The learnings gathered, and the uniqueness of the project will add significant value to similar projects elsewhere in the world.
Al-Ajmi, Ghassab (Kuwait Oil Company) | Abulkair, Sayed (Kuwait Oil Company) | Mejbel, Barzan (Kuwait Oil Company) | Alrasheedi, Mahmoud (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Awadi, Abdulla (Kuwait Oil Company) | Wahba, Ehab (Kuwait Oil Company) | Osman, Mohammed (Kuwait Oil Company) | Abdulaziz, Reda (Kuwait Oil Company)
Abstract Kuwait Oil Company (KOC) intends to develop Lower Fars Heavy Oil field on the north of Kuwait that requires steam generation. The Lower Fars Heavy Oil (LFHO) Development Project is targeted at a large heavy oil accumulation of approximately 7 to 15 billion barrels oil-in-place located in a desert area of some 1, 200 km in North Kuwait. The development of this heavy oil resource is important to Kuwait's production strategy. The LFHO reservoir has been partitioned into Well-Blocks; Phase 1 of the LFHO Development Project consists of two such Well-Blocks, which are intended to achieve a target plateau of 60,000 BOPD over a ten-year period from start of operations. This rate will increase after ten years, with future phases ramping up production up to a final plateau of 270,000 BOPD. Reservoir engineering work performed to date indicates that phase 1 areas can best be developed by two or three cycles of cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) followed by continuous steam flood (SF) with steam quality of 55% (wells) to 80% central processing facility (CPF). The steam will be generated by multiple Once-Trough Steam Generators (OTSG) located in a central processing facility (CPF). The Once through steam generation (OTSG) will use for generating steam utilizing treated boiler feed water to improve recovery of hydrocarbon from a reservoir. Integrity process for steam generation equipment considered on Project various stages e.g. equipment selection, design, fabrication, inspection and testing. Integrity process also considered during operation process of OTSG units within a defined integrity operating window (IOW) to establish and maintain a controlled process environment which would enable boiler feed water to be converted into steam in a safe, environmentally responsible manner without upsets and planned shutdown.
Abstract The cost per barrel is higher for Heavy Oil developments, and particularly thermal developments than for Conventional. Specific attention needs to be paid to the cost of Heavy Oil developments to ensure economic viability. The current cost basis for the heavy oil project shows that energy costs constitute some 45% of Unit Technical Cost and more than 65% of the OPEX per barrel. An OPEX cost improvement plan has been conceptualized to reduce the cost per barrel. Hence, the improvement plan focusses on Alternative Energy sources for steam generation. In addition to the cost optimization, those initiatives will contribute heavily in achieving HH the Emir of Kuwait vision to cover 15% of Kuwait’s peak load with renewable energy by 2030". Based on current field development plans a feasibility study was carried out to determine the maximum practical and economic fraction of energy that can be contributed by renewables in heavy oil development. The bulk of the work was executed developing a model to study the supply-demand balance, as well as the gas prices ranges within the alternative energy solutions are viable. To optimize the fuel gas consumptions two options were studied by utilizing the alternative energy solutions (solar steam and cogenerations) to generate steam instead of conventional boilers. On the power optimization side the study focused on the solar photovoltaic and wind energy. The lowest cost solution is to use direct solar steam and allow the steam injection at a variable rate - this may require some upgrades to allow fully- automatic flow control throughout the steam distribution system. With this method (and a typical weather year) solar fractions of approximately up to 40% may be possible. It may be possible to increase this further if the requirements for minimum steam flow in the steam distribution network can be reduced. With the use of thermal storage, the solar fraction can be increased to approximately 60-80%, however steam from storage is likely to cost significantly more than direct steam, especially as direct molten-salt coupled with oilfield- quality water has not yet been proven commercially. As renewable power alone will not be able to meet the full demand of Heavy Oil field development, hence the utilization of cogeneration will be a feasible solution in order to supply the required steam demands in addition to solar and also to supply the required power in addition to solar PV. The redundant power generated by the cogeneration may be supplied to the Electrical Grid. The economics analysis illustrates that all renewable options considered have positive NPV. The economics for both PV and wind are robust, where maximum deployment is advised, subject to grid connection constraints. For solar steam, the economics are partially affected by the once-through steam generators (OTSG) CAPEX already spent, but still show positive NPV. Anticipated costs reductions for solar steam technology as a consequence of greater deployment of the technology over the next few years could further improve the NPV. Including the cogeneration, solar steam and less conventional steam generators in the future projects will maximize the NPV of the heavy oil.