Wang, Ningyu (Hildebrand Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA) | Prodanovic, Maša (Hildebrand Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA) | Daigle, Hugh (Hildebrand Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA)
Precipitation and deposition of paraffin wax and hydrates is a major concern for hydrocarbon transport in pipelines, tiebacks, and other production tubing in cold environments. Traditionally, chemical, mechanical, and thermal methods are used to mitigate the deposition at the expense of production interruption, complex maintenance, costs, and environmental hazards.
This paper studies the potential of nanopaint-aided electromagnetic pigging. This process has potentially low production impact, simple maintenance, low energy cost, and no chemical expense or hazards. The electromagnetic pig contains an induction coil that emits an alternating magnetic field. The alternating magnetic field induces heat in the nanopaint coating (i.e. coating with embedded paramagnetic nanoparticles) on the pipeline's inner wall and in the pipeline wall itself. The heat then melts and peels off the wax and hydrates adhering to the pipeline, allowing the hydrocarbon to carry them away.
We analyze the heating effectiveness and efficiency of electromagnetic pigging. The heating effectiveness is measured by the maximum pigging speed that allows deposit removal. The heating efficiency is measured by the ratio of the heat received by the wax over the total emitted electromagnetic energy, which we define as the pig induction factor.
Based on our numerical model, we compare the pig induction factor for different coil designs, different hydrocarbon flow rates, and different pig traveling speeds. We find that slower pig speed generally improves the pigging performance, that shorter solenoids with larger radius have higher efficiency, and that the oil flow does not considerably affect the process. We re-evaluate the maximum pig speed defined by the static pig model and confirm that a solenoid with larger radius allows higher pig speed.
We investigate the potential of a novel, low-maintenance electromagnetic pigging method that poses minimal interruption to production. This investigation is a basis for a new technology that stems from initial experimental investigation done by our collaborators. We here provide parameters for pig design and pigging protocol optimization, and will put them in practice in our future lab experiments.
The entrepreneurial ecosystem and the oil and gas industry are not a perfect match, but the industry has made strides in recent years to attract the startups developing innovative technologies that could usher it into a new era. How are companies bridging the gap? Operators are looking for ways to better handle water coming from subsea wells, which is typically treated at topside facilities. Subsea separation systems are not equipped to discharge water back into the reservoir, so how do companies close the gaps? Operators are increasing capital budgets in the wake of tariffs and quotas initiated by the US government on steel imports, and the product exclusion process has revealed a host of other issues.
The criticality of above-water riser hull piping requires frequent inspections. Traditional manual inspection methods present safety and efficiency concerns, but work is being done to see if robotic technologies—such as drones and crawlers—can do the job as good as, or even better than, humans. It is rare that businesses selling equipment to the oil and gas sector can benefit from lower oil prices. But that is the case for CRA pipe manufacturers, which are comfortably outperforming 2014 levels. The laboratory will be used primarily to test the sulfide stress cracking resistance of carbon steel alloys for oil wells and offshore drilling applications.
The deployment of appropriate CO2-separation technologies for natural gas processing is viewed as an abatement measure toward global CO2-emissions reduction. Selection of the optimum technology requires special attentiion. The authors discuss the results of a pilot project to capture post-combustion CO2 for purposes of EOR. Three case studies are in progress that are based on actual oil-producing platforms—two on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) and one in the Brazilian basin. ExxonMobil is testing its Controlled Freeze Zone technology, a single-step cryogenic process that allows carbon dioxide (CO2) to freeze in a controlled method and then melts the CO2.
When panels in an instrument equipment shelter kept tripping and the occasional smell of H2S led to an investigation of the rationale. Although a rare occurrence, this paper presents a strategy for prevention through careful site selection. A wide range of corrosive elements and compounds from a variety of crudes has led to a renewed industry focus on corrosion and the effects it has on pipelines and vessels. Through a range of experiments the authors demonstrate that small amount of H2S can be beneficial in reducing corrosion in 3% Cr steel. Offshore production systems can be impacted negatively by numerous problems attributed to bacterial activity, associated hydrogen sulfide and biogenic iron sulfides, and mercaptan production.
With these synopses of technical papers from OnePetro you can join the author for conferences in Kuala Lumpur, New Orleans, and Lagos, all while sitting in your chairs and without any travel expenses. This paper reviews the mechanisms of initiation and the prevention of top-of-the-line corrosion (TLC). Recent research and developments are highlighted and validated to arrive at best practices for control of this significant corrosion manifestation. Water condensation and/or hydrate formation at the top of pipelines are serious design/operation considerations in pipelines. This paper reports the results of tests conducted in a new experimental setup constructed for investigating gas-hydrate risks in varied operational scenarios.
The considerations and standards guiding pipeline design insures stability and integrity in the industry. The fluid flow equations and formulas presented thus far enable the engineer to initiate the design of a piping or pipeline system, where the pressure drop available governs the selection of pipe size. This is discussed below in the section on velocity considerations for pipelines. Once the inner diameter (ID) of the piping segment has been determined, the pipe wall thickness must be calculated. If there are no codes or standards that specifically apply to the oil and gas production facilities, the design engineer may select one of the industry codes or standards as the basis of design. The design and operation of gathering, transmission, and distribution pipeline systems are usually governed by codes, standards, and regulations. The design engineer must verify whether the particular country in which the project is located has regulations, codes, and standards that apply to facilities and/or pipelines. In the U.S, piping on offshore facilities is mandated by regulation to be done in accordance with ANSI/ASME Standard B31.3. Some companies use the more stringent ANSI/ASME Standard B31.3 for onshore facilities. In other countries, similar standards apply with minor variations.
The pipeline system that conveys the individual-well production or that of a group of wells from a central facility to a central system or terminal location is a gathering pipeline. Generally, the gathering pipeline system is a series of pipelines that flow from the well production facilities in a producing field to a gathering "trunk" pipeline. Gathering systems typically require small-diameter pipe that runs over relatively short distances. The branch lateral lines commonly are 2 to 8 in. Gathering systems should be designed to minimize pressure drop without having to use large-diameter pipe or require mechanical pressure-elevation equipment (pumps for liquid and compressors for gas) to move the fluid volume. For natural-gas gathering lines, the Weymouth equation can be used to size the pipe. "Cross-country" transmission pipelines will collect the product from many "supply" sources and "deliver" to one or more end users. Transmission pipelines will generally require much larger pipe than gathering systems. Transmission systems normally are designed for long distances and will require pressure-boosting equipment along the route. Many factors must be considered when designing, building, and operating a pipeline system. Once the basic pipe ID is determined using the applicable flow formula, the other significant design parameters must be addressed. For U.S. applications, gathering, transmission and distribution pipelines are governed by regulations and laws that are nationally administered by the U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT).
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. A metal slug, lower in the electromotive series than steel that is hard wired to the casing and buried in a bed of wet soil or below the surface of the water. The corrosion cell in the well then transfers the current to the new anode and the steel in the well is protected.
Many hundreds of subsea wells are currently in service worldwide. Subsea wells may be installed individually, in clusters, or on a template where the reservoir fluids from all the wells are channeled to a manifold that is tied back to a host platform. A simple template arrangement is shown in Figure 1. Often wellheads and wet trees are designed as "diverless" and more recently "guidelineless" because they can be installed, maintained, and repaired either by remote control using equipment that does not need guidelines or tools that are wire guided from a vessel. Figure 1 shows a single-well diverless subsea production system.