The Aberdeen young professionals (YPs) group kicked off its 2007–08 technical-events calendar with a presentation on the increasingly important subsea- production sector given by Paul Tooms, global head of Subsea Technology for BP. Tooms was featured in the most recent edition of the The Way Ahead in the Technical Leader series interview. Addressing the Aberdeen YPs, Tooms gave an overview of his BP career of more than 30 years, which has spanned five continents. He described the wide scope of subsea engineering and went on to analyze global subsea investment trends, pointing to a relatively flat projection for capital expenditure on floating production platforms (e.g., spars; tension-leg platforms; and floating production, storage, and offloading systems). However, in comparison, subsea well count is expected to double by 2012, with increasing emphasis on subsea tiebacks to maximize investment on existing production units.
This paper describes a novel chemical injection system currently under development for long-term use in subsea oil and gas fields, and discusses the process being used to vet subsystems and components, and thereby increase the overall reliability of the system. Once proven and deployed, the system is expected to be a viable alternative to delivery of production fluids via umbilicals in deep water and with long stepouts from host production facilities. For decades, deepwater engineers have discussed a future in which oil and gas production systems that are typically located on floating facilities, would be placed on the seabed. The resulting subsea factory would include pumping, fluid storage, separation, power management, connections and controls all operating in the marine environment. While these technologies have proven to be reliable in the topside environment, and some have been used for short-term intervention, to date only boosting and separation systems, subsystems and components have been qualified for long-term installation on the seafloor. This paper details how the Technology Qualification Program, defined in the second edition of API RP 17Q, has been applied to qualify the novel subsea chemical injection system. The paper describes how the performance requirements were defined, together with their reliability implications, and provides examples of qualification activities.
In a deepwater environment, production fluid conditions have to satisfy complex requirements to flow smoothly to the production facilities on the FPSO. Flow assurance specialists work at turning these constraints into operating guidelines. This allows to close the gap between reservoir conditions, optimized design of the subsea network, topsides processing capabilities and operability requirements.
In the context of Kaombo, offshore Angola (Block 32), the wide range of reservoir conditions and fluids plus the extreme specificities of the subsea network called for an innovative approach with the following objectives: Empower the operator with a visual decision tool for normal and unplanned operations of the subsea system Promote collaboration between production, flow assurance & geoscience teams to reach an efficient decision, and minimize production shortfalls Allow a design robust enough to tackle geosciences uncertainties Optimize subsea design margins
Empower the operator with a visual decision tool for normal and unplanned operations of the subsea system
Promote collaboration between production, flow assurance & geoscience teams to reach an efficient decision, and minimize production shortfalls
Allow a design robust enough to tackle geosciences uncertainties
Optimize subsea design margins
This new approach, the "Visual Operating Envelopes", aims at explicitly and visually defining the operating limitations of the subsea production loops in a multi-parameters environment: A multi-dimensions map, function of the six main parameters (basically liquid and gas-lift flowrates, water and gas contents, reservoirs pressure and temperature) influencing multiphase flow into pipeline is hence created to evaluate the six main operating constraints (thermal and hydraulic turndown rates, wells eruptivity, maximum flowrates) for the full range of Kaombo fields.
This "operating envelope" tool can then define the minimum and maximum recommended flowrates for different operating conditions based on the following safe criteria: Arrival temperature above the Wax Appearance Temperature No hydrates risk during preservation No severe slugging effect Production below the flowline design flowrate Velocity below the erosional velocity
Arrival temperature above the Wax Appearance Temperature
No hydrates risk during preservation
No severe slugging effect
Production below the flowline design flowrate
Velocity below the erosional velocity
In addition, the optimized gas lift flowrate is directly accessible, and the pressure available at every wellhead is compared to the backpressure associated to the operating point to assess the eruptivity of the wells.
By having previously defined an overall operating envelope, it is extremely easy to evaluate quickly the impact of new operating conditions (due to degraded operating conditions, changes in reservoir parameters, modifications in the drilling and wells startup sequence), which makes this new approach very powerful and versatile. It also contributes to the definition of the production forecast during operation phase integrating reservoir depletion and available gas lift rate.
Instead of relying on specific simulations for a limited number of cases, this innovative method defines a new approach where operating parameters are evaluated from the start, and boundaries are clearly identified, thus allowing to build a sound production profile for an extensive range of operating conditions. By doing so, system knowledge is improved, bottleneck conditions are anticipated, operators, flow assurance and geoscience teams are able to tightly collaborate and take smarter decisions together, resulting in more production. Eventually the method applied to a multiphase pipeline is actually transposable to every problem involving multi-dimensional inputs with combined constraints.
This 1-day course provides participants with a background review of subsea production control systems and specific knowledge of Intervention Work-Over Control Systems (IWOCS) as they interact with subsea productions systems. This is followed by an interactive class discussion of operations scenarios, illustrating IWOCS usage and some situational challenges encountered during subsea hardware installation and well interventions. This course will give you a better understanding of how IWOCS differs from other control systems, how its tailored to hardware installation and well intervention work, and better understand the operating philosophies behind well control and well integrity. Laptop or Smart phone for Downloading the app for Poll Everywhere Participants should have some exposure to topic. Moderate experience or exposure to the topic will be a plus for the case study scenario session.
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. A subsea production tree with a horizontal valve arrangement to the side of the tubing hanger, permitting direct access to the tubing and tubing hanger without having to remove the tree during a workover.
Many hundreds of subsea wells are currently in service worldwide. Subsea wells may be installed individually, in clusters, or on a template where the reservoir fluids from all the wells are channeled to a manifold that is tied back to a host platform. A simple template arrangement is shown in Figure 1. Often wellheads and wet trees are designed as "diverless" and more recently "guidelineless" because they can be installed, maintained, and repaired either by remote control using equipment that does not need guidelines or tools that are wire guided from a vessel. Figure 1 shows a single-well diverless subsea production system.
Figure 1.6--The Baldpate Compliant Tower is one of the tallest free-standing structures in the world – Empire State Building (right) for comparison (Web Photograph, Amerada Hess Corp., New York City). Figure 1.9a--Worldwide fleet of installed and sanctioned semisubmersible FPS (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.9c--Worldwide fleet of installed and sanctioned spars (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.10--Semisubmersible FPS planned for the Thunder Horse field (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.11--Alternative proven technology field development options (courtesy of BP). Figure 1.12--Subsea production trees used in conjunction with a fixed jacket structure (Intec Engineering, Houston).
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