Summary Recent advances in both hardware and software have brought machine learning techniques to the forefront of many industries, disrupting traditional workflows and creating new opportunities. When applied to geophysical data and images, these same technologies have the potential to transform tasks ranging from data acquisition to processing, imaging, and interpretation. Here, we explore the latter category by presenting three applications of machine learning for seismic interpretation purposes: unsupervised clustering of image data according to AVA response; supervised classification of lithology or geomorphology based on seismic texture attributes; and seismic image resolution enhancement enabled by a "deep" learning algorithm. A common theme through each of these examples is the necessity for tight integration between the algorithms themselves and the geoscientific expertise required both to train the algorithms and to validate and interpret their results. As machine learning techniques become central to an increasing number of geophysical workflows, an emerging model of interaction between subject-matter experts and algorithms is one of a virtuous feedback loop - SME's provide their expertise to improve the performance of algorithms, which in turn can provide richer or higher-quality information than would otherwise be available to the SME's. 1) Automate tedious processes with a goal of efficiency, enabling interpreters to better utilize their time for developing a full subsurface story integrating all available data and knowledge; 2) Provide interpreters with richer, higher-quality data than would otherwise be available, allowing them to make better-informed decisions.
More and more companies are embracing this new way of extracting knowledge from downhole sensors in making better decisions and minimize non-productive time (NPT). Rigs provide massive amount of data to help drilling engineers optimize drilling efficiency, minimize NPT, and their associated costs. Learning to use data efficiently to improve drilling is a discipline that requires a combination of different skill sets including oilfield experience, statistics, programming, and effective communication. This interview explores this emerging discipline--the opportunities, challenges as well as what young professionals (YPs) need to know to have a rewarding career in drilling data analytics. To understand what's involved in the daily life of an analytics engineer, the skillsets required for the job, and how to make this transition, the TWA HR Discussion team interviewed Peter Kowalchuk, senior product manager, Halliburton Digital Solutions, about his experiences working with data discovery, visualization, interpretation, analytics, and decision making.
Keeping Up With the Digital Age: What is Data Analytics all about? The oil and gas industry is increasingly using data to make better decisions on a daily basis. From reservoir characterization to drilling operations, big data analytics is gaining more importance in the industry. More and more companies are embracing this new way of extracting knowledge from downhole sensors in making better decisions and minimize non-productive time (NPT). Rigs provide massive amount of data to help drilling engineers optimize drilling efficiency, minimize NPT, and their associated costs.
We present the DigiCoal toolbox that is an integrated set of numerical functions written in Matlab, dedicated to analyse 3D computed tomography (CT) images of coal and reconstructing representative digital models. The design is based on a comprehensive framework: CT image pre-processing, statistics extraction, digital coal modelling and structural analysis. This paper offers an overview of the structure and techniques used in the creation of the toolbox, together with code snippets and examples.
Currently, Some online tools, which is helping engineers either chemical or mechanical engineering calculation, easly can be accessed as a multifunction toolbox. They do not only propose a rapid online entrée to a wide-ranging of formula utilized in the subject area, but also provide serving as a useful tool for professionals which do not have any access to a complete library or who do not have accustomed skills to locate the formula needed.
Ultimately, the aim of virtual Petroleum Engineering Toolbox is to deliver comprehensive equations and formulas as well as the technical description of 1000 principles to academic communities and industrial segment either petroleum engineering background or not, within an appropriate accessible source in 24 hours a week.
Two core portions of Petroleum Engineering Toolkit are Equations and Technical Guideline / Perusal highlighting over a thousand calculations in Enhance Oil Reservoir, Broad-spectrum Reservoir, Production Optimization, Laboratory Experiments, Well Test Analysis, Well Stimulation, Production/Injection Logging, Thermodynamics concepts, PVT, Fluid flow behavior, Drilling and economics.
Thus far, field data, neither offshore nor onshore are really difficult to access, not only due to located in a remote area, but also the limitation of information sources. Hence, the Technical Guideline/Perusal section is providing the end user in a very convenient manner to serve as a library for reference tables, graphs, and diagrams in petroleum engineering section.
The current interface of Petroleum Engineering Toolbox is easy and friendly for the user through any PC, Mac, tablet or any mobiles devices. Further, it can be also retrieved by iPhone and iPad as a portable application.
In the past, this kind of complete and universally-available toolbox is not obtainable in the oil and gas industry, thus petroleum engineering toolbox is the first tools which is aiding the oil and gas professionals and the academic municipal.
There are many online petroleum engineering tools that run speedy online access to a wide spectrum of equations. Eventhough, these tools are as a convenient tool in the area of interest for professionals, they have a very limited ability due to only have a few equations for very specific tasks. This makes it very challenging for petroleum engineering students and professionals to locate an equation, since there is not available reference tables and charts all-in-one place. The inconvenience of access to an equation of need when required is a burden for students when they learn, for professionals when they want to remember and use it. It may be even harder for non-petroleum engineers to find the equations of need from many references or books.
An easy and convenience of single-point access to almost all petroleum engineering equations with the plotting feature is available through Petroleum Engineering Toolbox. It is an easy learning and practice tool for engineers with backgrounds other than petroleum engineering. Currently, 1000+ equations are gathered from 50+ petroleum engineering books and now they are all published online at ptlbx.com. Users can select/search for a formula and enter the inputs to calculate the outputs. They can also plot the results for further analyses. More formulas are being planned to be added.
Suhag, Anuj (University of Southern California) | Balaji, Karthik (University of Southern California) | Ranjith, Rahul (University of Southern California) | Tuna, Tayfun (University of Houston) | Nabizadeh, Mehdi (International Petro Asmari Company) | Kadkhodaei, Nematollah (International Petro Asmari Company) | Temizel, Cenk (Area Energy)
There are certain online tools that serve as a comprehensive toolbox in specific areas of engineering including but not limited to chemical and mechanical engineering. These tools provide quick online access to a broad range of equations used in the area of interest while serving as a convenient tool for professionals that do not have access to a comprehensive library or that are not familiar enough with the subject to locate the equation required. Thus, the objective of online Petroleum Engineering Toolbox is to provide users in academia and the industry - with or without petroleum engineering background - a comprehensive and convenient 24/7 accessible source for petroleum engineering and related calculations, offering calculations and technical description of over 1000 formulas. Petroleum Engineering Toolbox consists of 2 main sections: (1) Equations, (2) Technical Manual / Reference featuring a total of over thousand calculations in Reservoir, Drilling, Production, Well Testing, Flow, Laboratory Experiments, Economics, PVT, Logging, Optimization, Well Stimulation, EOR and Thermodynamics. The Technical Manual/Reference section is to serve as a library for reference tables, charts, tables in petroleum engineering, thus, providing a very convenient tool for engineers working anywhere in the world where it is hard to access sources of information including fields, offshore and onshore remote locations. It outlines the theory of equations used in calculations with units for the most convenient and user-friendly experience. The Petroleum Engineering Toolbox is available online and as a mobile application for better use on mobile devices. Its online interface is entirely built on top of open source technology. Server side connection is done by Apache 2.4.9
Balaji, Karthik (University of Southern California) | Suhag, Anuj (University of Southern California) | Ranjith, Rahul (University of Southern California) | Tuna, Tayfun (University of Houston) | Temizel, Cenk (Area Energy LLC)
There are certain online tools that serve as a comprehensive toolbox in specific areas of engineering, including but not limited to, chemical and mechanical engineering. These tools provide quick online access to a broad range of equations used in the area of interest while serving as a convenient tool for professionals who do not have access to a comprehensive library or those who are not familiar enough with the subject to locate the equation required. Thus, the objective of the online Petroleum Engineering Toolbox is to provide users in the academia and industry – with or without a petroleum engineering background – a comprehensive and convenient round the clock accessible source of petroleum engineering and related calculations, offering calculations and technical description of over 1000 formulas.
Petroleum Engineering Toolbox consists of 2 main sections; equations and a technical manual/reference, featuring a total of over a thousand calculations in reservoir, drilling, production, well testing, fluid flow, laboratory experiments, economics, PVT, logging, optimization, well stimulation, EOR and thermodynamics. The purpose of technical manual/reference section is to serve as a library for reference tables, charts, tables in petroleum engineering, thus, providing a very convenient tool for engineers working anywhere in the world, especially in places where it is difficult to access sources of information including fields, offshore and onshore remote locations. The manual outlines the theory of equations used in calculations with units for the most convenient and user-friendly experience.
The petroleum engineering toolbox is available online and as a mobile application for better use on mobile devices. The online interface of Petroleum Engineering Toolbox is entirely built on top of open source technology. Server side connection is done by Apache 2.4.9 Web Server and PHP Version 5.2.4. Formula representations are done by MathJax open source library. Petroleum Engineering Toolbox is available for PC, Mac, tablet, or any mobiles device through mobile friendly online user interface. It is also accessible for iPhone and iPad user as a mobile application.
Currently, even though there are tools for specific calculations, there is no such comprehensive and globally-available toolbox in all platforms in the oil and gas industry, thus, Petroleum Engineering Toolbox is a first of its kind serving the professionals in the oil industry and the academia with its expanding content.
The Urengoy field in western Siberia produces natural gas and condensate. Generally, companies' approaches to "training" engineers to become project managers consist of mostly informal mentoring and the individual's acquisition of lessons learned through his or her own work experiences. Is the current method of developing project managers effective? Anecdotal evidence from operating and service companies, contractors, and consulting engineering firms confirms a not-so-hidden secret: The oil and gas industry's performance in executing megaprojects is dismal. A recent study of offshore megaprojects (Merrow 2011), reported that from 2003 to 2011, only 22% of offshore megaprojects could reasonably be called successful as measured by the fulfillment of promises made at the time of the financial investment decision.
In more recent years, improved oil recovery (IOR) techniques are applied to reservoirs even before their natural energy drive is exhausted by primary depletion. Screening criteria for IOR methods are used to select the appropriate recovery technique in view of the reservoir characteristics. However, further reservoir appraisal is necessary after the applicable recovery technique is identified. The methodology proposed in this paper allows the preliminary evaluation of reservoir performance in parallel with the IOR screening process.
In this study, artificial neural network (ANN) methodology is used to build a high-performance neuro-simulation tool for screening IOR methods such as waterflooding, steam injection and miscible injection of CO2 and N2. This innovative tool integrates the field development plan into the screening method. The reservoir characteristics are evaluated together with a proposed production scenario to assess the most suitable recovery process and, at the same time, the reservoir performance is forecasted by providing the estimated oil production curve.
The screening toolbox consists of proxy models that implement a multilayer cascade feedforward back propagation artificial network algorithm. The proxy models work for a diverse range of reservoir fluids and rock properties. The field development plan is featured in the tool by different well patterns, well spacing and well operating conditions. The ANN screening tool predicts oil production rate, cumulative oil production and estimated production time. The tool also provides the flexibility to compare the hydrocarbon production for different sets of inputs, which facilitates comparison of various depletion strategies in the screening process as well.
The results of this study show that the networks are able to recognize the strong correlation between the displacement mechanism and the reservoir characteristics as they effectively forecast hydrocarbon production for different reservoirs. The tool presents a new means to design an efficient and feasible IOR project by using artificial intelligence. The proposed tool facilitates the appraisal of diverse field development strategies for oil reservoirs and allows comparison of reservoir performance under diverse production schemes.
Chevron Global Upstream has developed a global environmental performance standard and a computer-based waste management toolbox with the overall objective of reducing the potential for impacts from drilling fluids and associated cuttings in the offshore environment. The drilling discharge standard establishes minimum environmental performance requirements for offshore drilling projects. Requirements include no discharge of whole non-aqueous drilling fluid and drilled cuttings containing mineral or diesel oil. In addition, the standard requires the use of cuttings dryers and centrifuges when cuttings containing synthetic drilling fluids are discharged. A unique feature of the standard is the requirement that all offshore drilling projects undergo an environmental screening evaluation prior to discharge of muds and drilled cuttings. The screening evaluation considers a set of drilling, toxicity, biodegradation, and oceanographic data to assess whether a given drilling project has the potential to have an ecological impact. If this evaluation indicates a potential for impacts, steps must be taken to further understand the potential for impacts and, if necessary, mitigate them. Mitigation options might include selecting alternative drilling fluids, instituting additional treatment of the cuttings, reducing the total discharge cuttings volume, or seeking alternatives to discharge. To support implementation of the standard and help drilling engineers make the best drilling waste management decisions, a toolbox has been developed to evaluate and optimize waste management technology alternatives for offshore projects. The toolbox possesses a user-friendly computer-based interface that allows the drilling engineer to evaluate and select the most appropriate waste management technologies for their project based on drilling technical requirements, environmental performance, regulatory requirements, and cost. The overall integration of the drilling waste management toolbox and the environmental performance standard provide drilling operations with an enhanced combination of reduced risk to the offshore environment and cost-effective waste management technology.