An international Energy Company & independent engineering company have performed preliminary studies for an In-Line Robot (ILR) Project including: feasibility study, turbine design (with CFD calculations and flow assurance) and Energy Balance Assessments. This Robot will be a tetherless autonomous device capable of travelling with/against production flow to accomplish pigging and inspection missions inside pipelines with minimum production impacts. This is particularly adapted for single line long tiebacks, thanks to regenerative power management but the complexity of subsea architecture, flow conditions & fluids services raises some challenges. The ILR development is programmed over five phases (Feasibility study, Preliminary Systems design & Energy Balance Assessment, Flow Loop Bench Testing, Prototype Testing and Commercialisation). Phase 2 utilised Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation models to assess power extraction levels from production flow across various scenarios whilst minimising pressure drop. The results obtained included the turbine CFD models that were coupled to power conversion and storage modules in order to ensure that system drive and power managementwere captured in a closed loop. An operational envelope was established considering the preliminary turbine design simulations as well as the associated energy balance. This paper will present the results to date along with the key design features of the ILR and how the data will be used to verify the operational envelope during the next phase, Flow Loop Bench Testing which is due to start in late 2019. This will provide data to configure and predict operational envelopes of the robot for different flow patterns and fluid types.
Flowmeters are used to measure liquid/gas products. Turbine flowmeters are an effective means of accurate measurement of liquid/gas products in many industries. Because of the turbine meter's versatility and flexibility in product metering applications, it is one of the most widely used technologies in flow measurement. Turbine meters were invented in the 18th century by Reinhard Woltman, and at that time were used for water-flow measurement. In the 1950s, turbine meters were first used for hydrocarbon measurement for aeronautical applications within aircraft.
Gas turbines range in size from microturbines at 50 hp (37.3 kW) to large industrial turbines of 250,000 hp (190 kW). This page focuses on the gas turbine engine, the differences between types of turbines, and items to consider when they are applied as the prime mover. As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 1, the "open" Brayton cycle is the thermodynamic cycle for all gas turbines. Air enters the compressor inlet at ambient conditions (Point 1), is compressed (Point 2), and passes through the combustion system, where it is combined with fuel and "fired" to the maximum cycle temperature (Point 3). The heated air is expanded through the gas producer turbine section (between Points 3 and 5), where the energy of the working fluid is extracted to generate power for driving the compressor, and expanded through the power turbine to drive the load (Point 7).
Gas turbine meters are velocity meters, and the upper velocity limit is essentially unchanged by pressure. There are two main standards for turbine meters: ISO Standard 9951, Measurement of Gas Flow in Closed Conduits: Turbine Meters and OIML R32, Rotary Piston Gas and Turbine Gas Meters. An exploded view of a turbine meter is given in Figure 1. For additional information about turbine meters and their use in liquid measurement, see Inference liquid meters. Like orifice meters, turbine meters should be mounted within a meter tube (Figure 1).
Telemetry methods had difficulty in coping with the large volumes of downhole data, so the definition of MWD was broadened to include data that were stored in tool memory and recovered when the tool was returned to the surface. Power systems in MWD generally may be classified as one of two types: battery or turbine. Both types of power systems have inherent advantages and liabilities.
Flow measurement begins with a properly operating flowmeter; however, measurement procedures and correct flow calculations equally contribute to good overall system performance. Commonly referenced standards include: Chap. 4 "Proving Systems," Chap. 5 "Metering," Chap. The information in this chapter covers the characteristics of three types of flowmeters that are commonly used for the measurement of liquid hydrocarbons: the selection criteria for a flowmeter, the basics of field meter proving, and specifics on the design and operation of a lease automated custody transfer (LACT) system. Liquid flowmeters can be classified in two general areas: (1) a positive displacement meter that continuously divides the flowing stream into known volumetric segments, isolating the segments momentarily and returning it to the flowing stream while counting the number of displacements; and (2) an inference meter that "infers" flow by measuring some dynamic property of the flowing stream. Typical inference meters are turbine meters that infer flow by monitoring impeller speed, orifice meters that monitor pressure differential, and the Coriolis meter, which senses the Coriolis force on vibrating tubes to infer flow rate.
Meter proving is the physical testing of the performance of a liquid meter in a liquid service. The main purpose of the test is to assure accuracy. The basic principles of proving a liquid meter are the same whether it is a Coriolis meter, turbine meter, or a positive displacement meter. Meter factor prover known volume/meter reading. When proving a meter, the process-fluid conditions must be as stable as possible throughout the proving process.
It is widely accepted that global natural gas demand will continue to grow for the foreseeable future, possibly doubling every decade. Major new upstream developments, together with midstream transportation systems and downstream feedstock projects, are already progressing in all world areas. As this gas revolution evolves, there will be a dramatic rise in the requirement for high-accuracy measurement at every point in the gas value chain (Figure 1). Within these categories, there is a huge array of different gas-metering applications and a similar number of potential solutions. This can lead to confusion when selecting the optimum solution for the application.
The type of energy conversion system used to produce electrical power from a geothermal resource depends on the type and quality (temperature) of the resource. Vapor-dominated resources use conversion systems where the produced steam is expanded directly through a turbine. Liquid-dominated resources use either flash-steam or binary systems, with the binary conversion system predominately used with the lower temperature resources. When the geothermal resource produces a saturated or superheated vapor, the steam is collected from the production wells and sent to a conventional steam turbine (see Figure 1). Before the steam enters the turbine, appropriate measures are taken to remove any solid debris from the steam flow, as well as corrosive substances contained in the process stream (typically removed with water washing).
Pump drivers include electric motors, steam turbines, expansion turbines, gas turbines, and internal combustion engines. Three-phase alternating-current induction motors are the most commonly used driver for pumps because of the desirable characteristics of electricity as a power source and because the standard rotative speeds (1,750 and 3,500 rev/min) are well suited for driver centrifugal pumps. Large gas plants containing boilers use steam turbines to drive large pumps such as lean-oil pumps, boiler feed-water pumps, and solvent-circulation pumps. It is a common practice to select a turbine rated at pump speed and power requirements and to rely on the inherent flexibility of the turbine to provide for a margin of error. High-pressure process streams in gas plants commonly have pressure reduced for further processing.