The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Akinlosotu, Akintunde Olaniyi (ADNOC Onshore) | Quintero, Fernando (ADNOC Onshore) | Baruno, Agung (ADNOC Onshore) | Al Rahma, Rahma (ADNOC Onshore) | Al-Jabery, Razan (ADNOC Onshore) | Al-Reyami, Mazin (ADNOC Onshore) | Bin Shamlan, Abdulla (ADNOC Onshore) | Ali Al-Bunni, M (Baker Hughes) | Yehia Mahmoud, Mohamed (Baker Hughes) | Ud Duja, Badar (Baker Hughes) | Arshad, Hafiz (Baker Hughes)
Abstract Traditionally, the standard procedure employed by ADNOC Onshore for re-entry wells sidetracked from a cased hole involved milling a window in the casing and followed by a dedicated elongation run with a mud motor bottom hole assembly (BHA) for kick-off and to achieve desired separation from the original casing/wellbore before pulling out of hole with the motor drilling assembly. This is then followed up with a rotary steerable plus measurement/logging while drilling (M/LWD) assembly to continue drilling the 8-1/2″ deviated section to target landing point (LP). The main reasons for having the dedicated motor elongation run are to get enough separation from the main wellbore (not tracking the original hole) within the shortest distance to avoid the magnetic interference to the M/LWD tools from the casing and to assure not following the previously drilled well. However, associated with this practice are some negative impacts operationally which can be summarized as below –High localized dogleg severity (DLS) during the sliding interval with the motor –Requirement to make-up and round-trip two separate BHAs before drilling to planned LP –Potential hanging of the motor assembly at the window during sliding interval –Additional cost due to utilizing 2 different types of drilling bit (Initially TCI for the motor run and then PDC to drill the section) The only way to avoid those cons is by doing one trip with RSS to exit the window and drill away from the whipstock. The main challenge doing this will be to have enough rat hole to accommodate the BHA (including smart tools with electronics parts) and avoid damaging the BHA components during rotating it inside the casing. This can and has been achieved with a high build rate RSS by some operators but however, use of this technology still exposes the delicate components of the M/LWD tools to possible damage due to contact with the window while rotating the string with the tools still within the parent casing. The introduction of the motorized rotary steerable system (MRSS) in the suite of steerable drilling assemblies has opened additional window of opportunities. Ability to combine some of the benefits of using a mud motor with that of a rotary steerable system all in one bottom hole assembly without doubt offers the potential of pushing further the limit of performance and productivity. With the MRSS BHA, with a minimum required rathole drilled with the whipstock milling assembly, the rotating part of the BHA will be out of the window prior to start circulation. This paper presents the success achieved with a MRSS system with Near bit Gamma-ray sensor requiring only 18ft rat hole delivered in ADNOC Onshore re-entry wells sidetracked from whipstock window.
Abstract This paper discusses the added value of a new approach to exiting an existing wellbore, where the normal practice forces the plug and abandonment (P&A) of the existing lateral before cutting the window into a new lateral, particularly when an off-bottom cemented (OBC) liner is required. The new approach includes the construction of a Technology Advancement of Multilaterals Level 4 (TAML 4) junction to maintain well integrity and the successful development of a re-entry window that allows access to both the existing and the new slim wells. Not only has this technique unlocked massive potential, but it has also led to an enhancement in the utility and reduction in capital expenditure (CAPEX). The successful Level 4 sidetrack and re-entry window deployment is directly related to the robust system design. The application developed includes an anchor with a guide and high-torque capability, a TAML Level 4 junction created in a shape that will lead to smooth, repeatable access in the future, and a customized re-entry window system to further maximize the well potential. The true value is in allowing access to both the existing and the newly drilled lateral without using a rig or decompleting the well. Such operations use tubing exit whipstock (TEW) and pressure isolation sleeves, both of which can be run and retrieved in a rigless manner. The rigless access has allowed the existing lateral to be used as an observation well. Using permanent downhole gauges (PDHGs) enables real-time monitoring of the pressure and temperature and periodic logging to evaluate the reservoir. The newly drilled lateral can be the primary producing lateral; rigless access equally helps recover the well in case of any production challenges. The newly designed multilateral is a game changer for both mature and new developments because it maximizes reservoir production and helps reduce CAPEX by requiring fewer wells to be drilled. The improved well integrity minimizes well workover operations, which creates cost savings. This paper discusses the following aspects:A successful Level 4 junction construction from a slim re-entry existing/mature well. Repeatable accessibility to the lateral and motherbore. Meeting the motherbore objective as required. Delivering an OBC lateral liner and maintaining the well integrity.
Huang, Yi (CNOOC China Limited, Zhanjiang Branch, Zhanjiang 524057, China) | Liu, Hexing (CNOOC China Limited, Zhanjiang Branch, Zhanjiang 524057, China) | Liu, Zhiqin (CNOOC China Limited, Zhanjiang Branch, Zhanjiang 524057, China)
Abstract L2 formation of X Oilfield in western South China Sea is of characteristic of low porosity, low permeability and well controlled reserves, and long well interval, drainage area and controlled reserves can be significantly increased by adopting ultra-short radial radius drilling technology. Flexible drill pipe and drill bit was used in Well WZ-X1 to perform kick-off operation with only 2.4 m footage to increase inclination from 37 °to 87 °, and hold its inclination by drilling 60-62 m alongside reservoir with trajectory control margin of ±2°. This paper highlights the trajectory control technology with research of BHA, build-up and hold drill bit, and accurate calculation. During the field operation, drilling parameters were adjusted on the basis of formation variation and outstanding trajectory effect was accomplished and ultra-short radial radius trajectory control technology was achieved. This technology can solve the problem of trajectory control and extend horizontal section of reservoir. It can increase wellbore drainage area and well control reserves, providing technical reference for future operation.
Abstract The number of mature wells worldwide requiring abandonment intervention is rapidly gaining exposure again as the industry recovers. Current access to the completion, using straightforward methods of barriers to satisfy regulatory standards, is the primary means of completing the life cycle of a well. Other methods require an intersect process into the existing wellbore for the abandonment to be considered compliant. Using whipstocks to assist with the intersect can reduce time vs. conventional methods. Traditional methods of intersecting wells involve drilling or milling into the existing wellbore using directional assemblies, usually after a sidetrack operation up hole. This process of trying to breach into the existing well can be problematic and result in multiple unsuccessful attempts, driving up operational spend. Rather than leaving an intersect to chance, a whipstock can be used as a diverter to increase the likelihood of success while also controlling depth and direction more accurately. Once run into the well and anchored, the whipstock also acts as a re-entry guide for intervention and abandonment operations. An in-depth analysis of a recent abandonment operation, where both directional assemblies and eventually a whipstock was used to intersect existing casing for abandonment and to highlight the advantages and pain points associated with both methods. Through detailed preplanning, intensive logging, wellbore preparation, and prior experience, the whipstock operation was successful relative to prior attempts with conventional methods. The intersect and following abandonment process were not completed without lessons learned. Hole conditions, an up-hole casing exit junction, and custom cement blends were a few of the areas of focus for future improvement on efficiency. Even with operational challenges, the whipstock operation reduced time spent intersecting the well. This paper shows that whipstocks are a viable option to reduce time spent intersecting wells for abandonment purposes. This case history provides the industry an opportunity to replicate this success in similar applications.
Abstract In Underbalance Coiled Tubing Drilling (UBCTD), well pre-setting can be defined as the required drilling or work-over activity to set the last casing string at the top of a productive layer. This cost can be avoided by utilizing a thru-tubing casing exits (whipstock). This paper will address the challenges and enablers for direct wells’ intervention without pre-setting. To close the gap between sending existing wells for pre-setting and direct well intervention with UBCTD, an extensive case-by-case analysis on UBCTD candidates is carried out. In essence, the approach was selected on the basis of utilizing existing technologies to their full potential or re-designing the tools to be able to fulfill the requirements. Since some candidates don't tolerate failures and allow for only one attempt, tools were always subjected to the highest level of quality checks and deployed in the best possible conditions. Setting thru-tubing whipstocks in a typical well will require a low to medium inclination, rigid cement behind the casing and enough room below end of tubing. One of the main challenges in UBCTD is weight transfer for milling a window through the metal, especially in high inclination. Applying excessive weight on the window could agitate and dislocate the whipstock. Consequently, this could result in having stuck incidents while passing through the window during tripping. Thus, for such an application, the whipstock has been empowered with stronger slips for robust casing engagement. In another challenge for cases with limited room below end of tubing, the window milling BHA was redesigned to be shorter. Also, close monitoring on the milling parameters was employed to ensure smoothness of the window and to avoid losing it and, indeed, losing the well. Such practice becomes standard to observe the milling parameters and benchmark them to guarantee the best window possible. This approach allows entry on wells with poor or absent cement behind the casing. Utilizing the current wells’ assets as they are, and avoiding re-entry or mechanical pre-setting can save tremendous cost. Salvaging wells can be tricky with multiple choices and this would be always be a great opportunity with the tools and process upgraded. Thru-tubing whipstocks can now be handled in different fashions based on case-by-case applications.
Liu, Yongjun (Shell China Exploration and Production Company Ltd) | Zhao, Hongkai (Shell China Exploration and Production Company Ltd) | Wang, Jichang (Shell China Exploration and Production Company Ltd) | Sun, Jiacai (PetroChina Changqing Oilfields Company) | Luo, Lei (PetroChina Changqing Oilfields Company) | Lu, Zaohua (PetroChina Changqing Oilfields Company) | Zhang, Xiaodong (PetroChina Changqing Oilfields Company) | Jiang, Tao (CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Limited) | Zhu, Xuanlu (CNPC Chuanqing Drilling Engineering Company Limited) | Zhang, Zhenhuo (CNPC CCDC DPRI)
Abstract China Changbei block development is an unconventional tight gas project in China Ordos basin. The main pay zone of Changbei is braided river sedimentation with inconsistency of sandstone. Well stimulation with hydraulic frac was the predominant concept for tight gas development in the basin with low individual well producing rate. Innovative Dual-Lateral horizontal well concept was selected for Changbei block thin gas reservoir development. Each cluster planned 3 Dual-Lateral horizontal wells which could cover a 3 km radius circle drainage area. The Dual-Lateral well spud with 16" hole to about 600m to secure top formation, then continue with 12-1/4" hole section landing in reservoir formation at around 3,400m AHMD (2,900m TVD) and cased off with 9-5/8" casing. Two 8-1/2" lateral legs, with each being turned for around 45 degrees in azimuth to separate from each other, string up as many as sand bodies in designed 2,000m leg length in reservoir section to maximize production. The Dual-Lateral horizontal well design proven to be successful for China Changbei tight gas development. By 2022, Changbei completed in total 57 Dual-Lateral horizontal wells and maintained productivity over 3.2BCM per year for more than 14 years, played an important role for China gas supply. This paper detailly described the well design and execution of Dual-Lateral horizontal wells including drilling challenges and countermeasures including casing exit and open hole sidetrack practices, hole cleaning, drill pipe and BHA selection, etc. The paper will give a full picture on Dual-Lateral horizontal wells construction.
Guan, Shen (China University of Petroleum Beijing) | Liu, Shujie (CNOOC China Limited-Hainan) | Yang, Jin (China University of Petroleum Beijing) | Liu, Zhiqin (CNOOC China Limited-Zhanjiang) | Xu, Dongsheng (China University of Petroleum Beijing) | Zhao, Yuhang (China University of Petroleum Beijing) | Ma, Kuo (China University of Petroleum Beijing) | Zhang, Xun (China University of Petroleum Beijing) | Ling, Tong (China University of Petroleum Beijing)
Abstract Weizhou Oilfield, located in Beibu Gulf Basin, is a complex fault-block structure oilfield formed at the late periods of the Eocene epoch. The reservoir is in the second member of Liushagang formation, of which lithology is mainly argillaceous siltstone, with high shale content, and is characterized by strong heterogeneity with rapid transition of horizontal pay zone, low porosity and permeability, poor oil recovery due to early-stage extraction through conventional well completion and perforation. In order to expand the drainage area of reservoir and improve the connectivity of the reservoir for improvement of control reserves and enhance oil recovery, the research of "Ultra-short Radius Well Drilling Technology was carried out. The Multi-lateral Ultra-short Radius Well Drilling Technology refers to a novel multi-lateral horizontal well with a radius of curvature of 1~3m or even less, which is completed by special flexible drill pipe composed of mechanical flexible units. Ultra-short Radial Radius Drilling Technology is used in land oilfields in the early stage, which is expected to not only improve recovery and production, but also reduce drilling operation cost, so it is considered as an important measure for enhance oil recovery (EOR), further exploration of residual oil, and stable production in oilfields, and can be suitable for the development of low permeable reservoirs, thin pay zone, and other reservoirs. However, the key challenges include: 1) build-up with dogleg severity of greater than 10°/m; 2) conventional drill pipes cannot meet the demand of high dogleg severity and horizontal drilling. Since there is no case available for reference in the early stage of applying "Ultra-short Radial Radius Drilling Technology" in offshore oilfields, besides the aforementioned challenges are for onshore oilfields, other challenges for application of this technology offshore include: (1) Staggering high offshore operation cost, and strict requirement for work schedule. During offshore drilling operation, the footage cost is USD $1850/m, the novel technology is required to be used economically; (2) as for offshore operation, most development wells are deviated, and the trajectory is complex. Since offshore oilfields are mostly developed by cluster wells, and the sidetrack process is subject to well trajectory and dogleg severity. In light of build-up with dogleg severity of greater than 10°/m, conventional drillpipes cannot go through the sidetracking point with dogleg greater than 10°/m. As a result, novel "Ultra-short Radial Radius Drilling Technology" was introduced by developing a series of novel downhole tools, including highly deviated (23°) Ø209mm whipstock, Ø127mm flexible build-up drillpipe, and Ø144mm build-up bit, combined with selection of sidetracking point, well trajectory design optimizing, and solving difficulties related to operation. Field application results showed that the "Ultra-short Radial radius Drilling Technology" can lead to enhance oil recovery, and high efficient development of oilfields.
Almasmoom, Salahaldeen S (Saudi Aramco) | Refai, Ahmed (Schlumberger) | Al-Qahtani, Faris A (Saudi Aramco) | Stonestreet, David B (Saudi Aramco)
Abstract During non-productive time (NPT) such as stuck pipe incidents, reducing the operational time and associated cost of the trouble mitigation should always be the goal. Therefore, the engineering team searched for new and innovative ways to reduce the NPT when stuck pipe incidents happen, and successfully utilized an existing technology in a new way not yet performed on a global basis. In seldom incidents drilling or tripping through unstable zones (especially when drilling through sticky shales and loose sandstone zones charged with downhole faults/fractures) with complete loss of circulation, severe tight spots, stalling tendencies, hard backreaming, etc. might be experienced. In the worst case, the pipe might get stuck and cannot be freed. The engineering team investigated several options to allow drilling and casing off the trouble zones in such incidents, while reducing the NPT in the same time. Sidetracking through open-hole and/or cased-hole whipstock, then utilizing level-2 casing-while-drilling technology to drill and case-off the instable zones was the best cost effectient option. Successful deployment of level-2 16-in × 13-⅜-in casing-while-drilling (CwD) technology through an 18-⅝-in cased-hole sidetrack whipstock and level-2 22-in × 18-⅝-in CwD technology through open-hole sidetrack led to drilling and casing off severe unstable sections in two separate wells in different areas of interest. The level-2 13-⅜-in CwD utilization to drill and case-off trouble zones through cased-hole sidetrack was the global first. The level-2 18-⅝-in CwD utilization to drill and case-off trouble zones through open-hole sidetrack was the country first. Both led to significantly reducing the non-productive time (NPT) resulted from the stuck pipe incidents in a cost effective manner. Extensive engineering simulations, technical limits, and risks assessment were set to insure flawless execution. During the job execution, the drilling performances were constantly monitored. The engineering simulations are updated using the actual parameters to ensure accurate measurements of the accumulated fatigue while being rotated to preserve the casing due to exposure to high dogleg severity (DLS) in the sidetracked wellbore. Furthermore, the hydraulics are optimized real-time to ensure hole cleaning without further increase in the equivalent circulating density. Even with no prior global experience of the utilization of this technology through such operation, the pursuit of the technical limit was to reduce the NPT as much as possible. The technical paper will highlight the planning steps, challenges, detailed engineering simulation, risks mitigations and engineered solutions, and the successful results of the deployment of level-2 CwD runs through sidetracked wellbores.
Abstract The drilling of a secondary wellbore departing from a primary wellbore, known as a sidetrack, is used for many reasons during wellbore construction. Sidetrack techniques and procedures are well established with all the major service companies. A typical sidetrack operation would consist of setting a deflector (whipstock), cutting a hole in the existing casing (window), and then drilling into the formation at the desired exit angle and direction (kick off) to produce a starting hole (rathole) for subsequent drilling. The sidetrack milling assembly would then be Pulled Out of Hole and the drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) run in hole to continue drilling the secondary wellbore trajectory. If for some reason, the casing exit and desired departure of the sidetrack is not obtained, this will remain unknown until the subsequent drilling operation with Logging While Drilling (LWD) tools are run in hole and have extended the rathole. The failure to obtain and recognize the desired kickoff departure prior subsequent drilling operations can lead to significant Non Productive Time (NPT) and subsequent rectification costs. This paper describes the development and successful testing of a compact sensor package located near the front of the sidetrack milling assembly. The sensor package is activated at surface and records inclination data during the sidetrack operation. When the sidetrack milling assembly is pulled out of hole the sensor is read wirelessly using a handheld reader once the milling assembly is at surface. The reader gives the operator a visual confirmation, or otherwise, that the desired sidetrack kick off departure has been achieved allowing informed decisions to be made on the next operational stage.
Abstract The recent decline in crude oil production has needed more subsurface explorations to sustain and increase oil production in Mexico. The Client has discovered high potential fields with wells around 7,500 m (24,605 ft) to 8,200 m (26,902 ft) with high pressure, high temperature and hard formation features. On deep HPHT wells, many challenges have been identified for drilling and completion, which can lead to the execution of challenging operations for reaching the objective of the well. It is common to sidetrack the wells due to geological or mechanical failures. In Mexico, around 430 jobs were performed successfully in large casing sizes such as 9-5/8", 11-3/4" and 13-3/8" onshore and offshore. What is uncommon is to sidetrack the wells in smaller casing sizes (9-5/8" and 7"), with non-conventional grades, such as TAC-140, which is only used in Mexico with the record of three unsuccessful jobs (two onshore wells and one offshore well) to this day. The work presented here aims to share the process of opening a window in a dual casing in hard steel (TAC-140) in a very complex and challenging environment.